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全国农业植物检疫性昆虫的分布与扩散
Distribution and spread of national quarantine insects of agricultural plants in China
马 茁1, 2** 姜春燕1, 2 秦 萌3 刘 慧3 冯晓东3 张润志1, 2**
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作者单位:1. 中国科学院动物研究所,北京 100101;2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049;3. 全国农业技术推广服务中心,北京 100026
中文关键词:植物检疫性有害生物,昆虫,分布,扩散,中国
英文关键词:quarantine pest, insect, distribution, spread, China
中文摘要:

我国全国农业植物检疫性有害生物名中包括10昆虫根据每年农业部安排对全国农业植物检疫性有害生物(昆虫)发生、分布和扩散情况的监测和普查结果,结合这些检疫性昆虫的各种研究报道,全面综合分析了包括菜豆象Acanthoscelides obtectus Say)、蜜柑大实蝇Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake)、四纹豆象Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)、苹果蠹蛾Cydia pomonella L.)、葡萄根瘤蚜Viteus vitifolii (Fitch)、美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea (Drury)、马铃薯甲虫Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say)、稻水象甲Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel、红火蚁Solenopsis invicta Buren和扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley的危害、入侵,扩散历史和分布现状。10全国农业植物检疫性昆虫有5种来自北美洲,危害作物包括粮食作物、果树、蔬菜和经济作物棉花等,最早发现这些物种的区域主要为沿海和沿边地区;稻水象甲、苹果蠹蛾、红火蚁、扶桑绵粉蚧和马铃薯甲虫扩散势头强,分布区域较大;湖南、云南、吉林和台湾的种类数最多,各为5浙江、新疆和广西各有4西藏和青海没有发现全国农业植物检疫性昆虫。20世纪80年代开始新增分布省份成倍增加,90年代比80年代新增分布省份增加了3倍,20世纪前10年比90年代增加了1.6倍,2010-2016年的6年时间新增省份已与前一个10年持平。我国全国农业植物检疫性昆虫分布范围广对主要作物威胁大沿海和沿边省区是主要的最早入侵地并且扩散速度越来越快省级区域水平发生新疫情的频率越来越高。植物检疫措施对控制检疫性昆虫的扩散发挥了重要作用,但还需要各级主管部门以及农林等不同部门间更密切的合作。建议全国农业植物检疫性有害生物名录的修订要慎重,遵循“基本稳定、适时增减”的基本原则。


英文摘要:

 The list of national quarantine pests of agricultural plants in China includes 10 species of insects. Based on nationwide monitoring and census results organized by the Ministry of Agriculture every year, a comprehensive analysis of 10 species of insects including Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake), Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), Cydia pomonella (L.), Viteus vitifolii (Fitch), Hyphantria cunea (Drury), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley was conducted. Five of them are native to North America. In China, these 10 species of insects mainly damage cereal crops, fruit trees, vegetables and cotton. They were generally first found in coastal and border areas. Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, Cydia pomonellaSolenopsis invicta and Leptinotarsa decemlineata are spreading quickly and are more widely distributed than the other species. Hunan, Yunnan, Jilin and Taiwan each have 5 species; more than other provinces, whereas Zhejiang, Xinjiang and Guangxi each have 4 species. Tibet and Qinghai currently have no national quarantine insects. The number of provinces in which new insects have been found doubled in the 1980s compared to the 1970s. In the 1990s the number increased by 3-fold compared to the 1980s and is now increased 6-times that in the first 10 years of this century. In the last 6 years from 2010-2016 provinces in which new insects have been found equal the number in the previous 10-year period. The national quarantine insects of agricultural plants in China are widely distributed in China and are a major threat to agricultural development. Coastal and border provinces are the generally where insects have been first detected. The rate of spread is increasing, and the frequency at which they are colonizing new provinces has also increased. Phytosanitary measures have played an important role in controlling the spread of them. However, authorities at all levels, as well as different administrative agencies such as agriculture and forestry, need to cooperate more closely to control the spread of the national quarantine insects of agricultural plants. Revision of the list should carefully follow the basic principle of "mainly keep the status quo but add and subtract species in a timely fashion".

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