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生境管理——保护性生物防治的发展方向
Habitat management in biological control
赵紫华1**,欧阳芳1,门兴元2,刘军和3,贺达汉4,戈峰1***
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作者单位:1. 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室北京100101;2. 山东省农业科学院植物保护研究所济南250100;3. 黄淮学院生物工程系驻马店463000;4. 宁夏大学农学院银川750021
中文关键词:控害保益功能,生态服务功能,生境组合设计,景观生态学,尺度
英文关键词:ecological service, habitat manipulation, landscape ecology, scale
中文摘要: 生境管理是近年来保护性生物防治的重要研究方向,也是利用农业景观格局进行生物防治的重要策略。生境管理是指从农田景观的角度,在大时空尺度范围内进行多种作物与非作物生境的设计与布局,创造有利于天敌的环境条件,抑制害虫种群发生,达到减小环境污染、增强农业生态系统的控害保益功能,最终实现害虫种群控制的可持续性。景观尺度下的生境管理不仅强调单一农田生物控害作用,而是以多生境农业景观整体布局为指导,探索各种生境功能的整合利用,以发挥各种生境最大的生物控害潜能,为实现多目标生态服务价值管理提供重要的理论基础和现实依据。本文系统地总结了生境管理的研究内容与实现途径,论述了农业景观格局与过程对害虫种群控制的机理,并对作为保护性生物防治发展方向的生境管理研究趋势进行了展望。
英文摘要: Habitat management is one of the most important new directions in pest biological control. Through this method, landscape patterns and processes are designed to optimize pest management on a large spatial and temporal scale. Habitat management is used to enhance the activity of natural enemies and suppress pest populations through agricultural landscape design and manipulation aimed at creating the most favorable survival environment for natural enemies, and the least favorable environment for pest populations. At the same time, interspecific interactions are used to enhance pest management. Ideally, the resultant economic benefits and improved crop yields are sustainable longterm. The focus of most habitat management research has been on understanding the role of plantbased resources in the biology and ecology of predatory species, and the ability of these to enhance the suppression of pest populations. The core methodology has been the construction and design of agricultural structures in successive spatiotemporal scales, which enhance activity of, and predation by, predatory species in the agricultural landscape, thereby suppressing pest populations to the greatest extent. We analyzed previous habitat management studies and found that just four plant species have been tested in the majority of field evaluations, whereas plants native to the test area and perennial plants are underrepresented. We summarize the main research into methods of habitat management, which largely advocate pest management by modeling of “mosaic cycles”. Far less attention has been paid to additional ecosystem services that habitat management practices could provide in managed landscapes. The condition and trend of habitat management are forecast. This paper not only addresses the biological control of insect pests, but also addresses other ecological services in habitat management. The function of different landscape factors is studied and analyzed. The aim of habitat management is to achieve multiple ecological services and to supply a theoretical basis for and the potential for pest management. We conclude that addressing habitat management with multiple ecosystem service goals can decrease dependence on agrochemical fertilizers and insecticides.biological control service,

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