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我国梨小食心虫综合防治研究进展
Progress in the application of IPM to control the oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molesta) in China
范仁俊,刘中芳,陆俊姣,封云涛,庾琴,高越,张润祥
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DOI:
作者单位:山西省农业科学院植物保护研究所太原030032
中文关键词:梨小食心虫, 生物学特性, 综合防治
英文关键词:Grapholitha molesta, biological characteristics, IPM
中文摘要:

     近年来,由于农业产业结构的调整,我国北方果树栽培种类日益增多、种植面积不断扩大。重要果树害虫梨小食心虫Grapholitha molesta(Busck)为害大幅回升、危害逐年增加。针对这一情况,在西北、东北和华北3个北方果树生产代表区域建立50余个监测示范点,开展了梨小食心虫的生物生态学规律及综合防治技术的研究、集成与示范。研究结果表明,气候变化和种植结构对梨小食心虫发生规律有显著影响。全球气候变暖条件下,梨小食心虫年发生世代呈增加趋势;在果树混栽区域,晚熟桃为梨小食心虫的主要越冬场所。防治技术方面,在对梨小食心虫常规农业防治、物理防治、生物防治、化学防治技术组装配套的基础上,重点开展了高效节水诱捕器、国产迷向产品研发及标准化应用技术、优势天敌饲养及释放技术、专用农药研发及农药减量化技术等研究工作。前瞻性地研发了植物源诱捕剂及迷向新剂型等贮备技术。最后针对当前梨小食心虫防治工作中存在的问题和不足,确定了下一步的研究方向:(1)全球气候变暖对梨小食心虫发生动态的影响;(2)梨小食心虫成虫不同寄主间的转移规律;(3)梨小食心虫的抗性监测技术和快速诊断试剂盒研制;(4)梨小食心虫的抗性分子机理与抗性治理技术。

 

英文摘要:      In recent years, the number of fruit varieties and area of fruit crops under cultivation has risen steadily following improvements in the horticulture industry in northern China. However, at the same time the damage caused by an important insect pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck), has increased yearly. Biological and ecological characteristics of G. molesta, and the application of integrated pest management (IPM) to control this pest, were investigated at over 50 monitoring points established in northwestern, northeastern and central North China.The results indicate that climate change and orchard planting systems have significant impacts on the impact of G. molesta on fruit crops. The number of generations of G. molesta is increasing with climatic warming. Late peach crops are the major overwintering habitat of this pest in companion planting areas. Based on reassembling traditional control technologies, including agricultural, physical, biological and chemical controls, we suggest that greater emphasis be placed on the development and application of sex pheromone traps and domestic dispensers of mating disruption, the rearing and releasing of biological control agents, the development of exclusive insecticides and reducing insecticide use. The application of botanical baits and new methods of disrupting mating are addressed. Directions for further study are summarized in light of problems and weaknesses identified in the methods examined: (1) investigating the population dynamics of G. molesta under various global warming scenarios; (2) research on the chemical interactions between G. molesta and host plants; (3) developing technology to monitor pesticide resistance and a rapid diagnosis reagent kit; (4) research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance in G. molesta and how to manage this.
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