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小蜂滞育的研究进展
Progress in research on diapause of chalcidoids
张洁**,张礼生***,陈红印,李玉艳,王伟
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DOI:
作者单位:中国农业科学院植物保护研究所农业部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室北京100081
中文关键词:小蜂, 滞育, 光周期, 温度, 寄主, 滞育后发育生物学
英文关键词:Chalcidoid, diapause, photoperiod, temperature, host, postdiapause development
中文摘要:

  滞育现象在多种小蜂类天敌昆虫中存在,通过研究小蜂滞育技术,可实现蜂种的长期贮存、延长防控作用时间、提高产品的抗逆性,对小蜂工厂化生产及应用具有重要意义。本文在分析国内外小蜂总科昆虫滞育文献的基础上,总结了已开展滞育研究的69种小蜂类昆虫的滞育虫态、滞育持续期、主要诱导因子以及亲代效应等,分属小蜂科、赤眼蜂科、姬小蜂科、跳小蜂科、金小蜂科、蚜小蜂科、旋小蜂、长尾小蜂科、广肩小蜂、四节小蜂科10科。小蜂多以幼虫或预蛹滞育,其滞育敏感阶段因种不同而异。滞育持续期相对较长,大多可维持数月。一种寄生麦红吸浆虫的金小蜂Macroglenes penetrans在2.5℃的土壤中,其滞育持续期可达16个月。低温、短日照和寄主是影响多数小蜂滞育的主要因子;但也有少数小蜂进行夏滞育,如普金姬小蜂Chrysocharis pubicornis、Aphelinus flavus、车轴草广肩小蜂Bruchophagus platypterus等。另外,亲代也可对小蜂滞育产生一定影响。目前,对小蜂滞育后发育生物学评价的研究报道较少,尚待进一步探索研究。

英文摘要:

Diapause is widespread in a variety of chalcidoids, which are important natural enemies of many pests. Regulating diapause of chalcidoids could achieve several important goals in chalcidoid production: longterm species preservation, prolonging of the period of prevention and control of pests, and improving the chalcidoids’ resistance ability. An analysis of most of the recent literature on the diapause of chalcidoids reveals that 69 species have been studied with regard to diapause in instars, diapause duration, main factors inducing diapause and parental effects on diapause. The literature includes studies of species in the Chalalcididae, Trichogrammatidae, Eulophidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Aphelinidae, Eupelmidae, Torymidae, Eurytomidae and the genus Dipriocampe. The majority of chalcidoids diapaused as larvae or prepupae. The diapausesensitive period varies in different species. Chalcidoids have a relatively long diapause duration and most can be maintained for several months. Macroglenes penetrans diapausing in soil at 2.5 degrees can survive for at least 16 months. The major factors influencing diapause of chalcidoids are short day light, low temperature and host. Chrysocharis pubicornis, Aphelinus flavus and Bruchophagus platypterus are species which diapause in summer. Parents may also have an impact on chalcidoids’ diapause. Further research on post-diapause development needs to be undertaken.


 

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