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榴莲果肉挥发物对橘小实蝇雄虫的引诱作用
Attractiveness of durian fruit volatiles to Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)
莫如江** 欧阳倩 钟宝儿 吴伟坚***
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2014.158
作者单位:华南农业大学昆虫生态研究室,广州 510642
中文关键词:桔小实蝇,榴莲,挥发物,引诱剂,2-甲基丁酸乙酯
英文关键词:Bactrocera dorsalis, Durio zibethinus, volatiles, attractant, ethyl-2-methylbutyrate
中文摘要:

   【目的】 实蝇类雄成虫对某些含有甲基丁香酚或覆盆子酮等特殊化合物的花类具有强烈的趋性。具有强烈气味的水果挥发物对果实蝇属昆虫的引诱作用尚未有研究。【方法】 在杨桃园研究榴莲、菠萝蜜、菠萝及番荔枝4种新鲜水果气味对橘小实蝇的引诱作用,利用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(GC-MS)提取并分析榴莲果肉挥发物成分。【结果】 结果显示,榴莲果肉挥发物对橘小实蝇雄虫的引诱效果最显著;榴莲果肉挥发物共得到22个峰,鉴别到20种化合物。绝大部分为酯类物质(>90%),少数为醇类(0.50%)、醛类(0.45%)和含硫化合物(4.23%;诱捕试验显示,2-甲基丁酸乙酯对橘小实蝇雄虫的引诱数量显著高于2-甲基丁酸甲酯、丙酸丙酯、二甲基硫醚、辛酸乙酯、己酸甲酯以及榴莲鲜果肉。【结论】 本试验结果将为下一步研发高效桔小实蝇引诱剂提供依据。

英文摘要:

     [Objectives]  Males of various tephritid fruit fly species are attracted to and feed on some flowers which contain particular chemical compounds, such as methyl eugenol or raspberry ketone. The attractiveness of strong smelling fruits to Bactrocera has never been investigated. [Methods]  The attractiveness of the scent of durian, jackfruit, pineapple and cherimoya to Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) were investigated in a carambola orchard. The volatile components of durian flesh were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS). [Results]  Fresh durian flesh was more attractive than the other fruit extracts tested. 22 peaks were isolated, and 20 compounds identified from durian fruit volatiles. The majority of compounds were esters (>90%), the remainder were alcohols (0.50%), aldehydes (0.45%) and sulfur compounds (4.23%). Trap using ethyl-2-methylbutyrate as a lure caught significantly more insects than those using methyl-2-methylbutyrate, propyl propionate, dimethyl sulfide, ethyl octmoate, methyl hexanoate and durian flesh. [Conclusion]  These findings suggest that ethyl-2-methylbutyrate has potential for developing more effective attractants for B. dorsalis management.  

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