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气候变暖对寒地大豆作物两种害虫发生的影响
Influences of climate warming on co-occurrence of Aphis glycines(Matsumura) and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) ondifferent soybean strains in cold area of China
王 荣1** 郝 操2 牛琳琳1 赵佳男1 付 雪2*** 叶乐夫1*** 赵奎军
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2016.091
作者单位:1. 东北农业大学农学院 哈尔滨 150030;2. 黑龙江大学农业资源与环境学院 哈尔滨 150080
中文关键词:大豆蚜,朱砂叶螨,种间竞争,温度,大豆品种
英文关键词:Aphis glycines, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, interspecific competition, temperature, soybean strain
中文摘要:

目的研究温度上升对中国寒地大豆作物上植食性害虫种群发生及种间关系的影响,有利于做好田间多种害虫发生的长期预测预报。方法本研究在人工气候箱内模拟气候变暖,调查了低温和高温对大豆蚜Aphis glycines (Matsumura)及朱砂叶螨Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)种群在大豆植株上的发生及二者种间关系的影响;并用“叶子圆片法”测试了两种害虫在不同大豆品种上共同发生时的相互作用影响。结果低温有利于大豆蚜种群发展,高温有利于朱砂叶螨的种群发生;在高温下,两种害虫的种间竞争系数下降,即环境容纳量会增大。另外,在现有的气温条件下,两种害虫在大豆上的发生关系是“偏利共存”,易于共同发生的,特别是大豆蚜更易于成灾,尤其是一些感虫性比较高的当地主栽大豆品种,即不同大豆品种的抗虫性有显著差异。结论这些情况表明:当前寒地大豆作物上不甚严重的几种害虫在未来有较高的成灾风险,需要准备一些防控预案,譬如,选育一些抗虫性较高而又适宜本地栽种的大豆品种。

英文摘要:

 [Objectives]  To investigate the effects of temperature increase on the occurrence of phytophagous arthropod pests, and their interspecific interactions, on soybean crops in cold areas of China in order to improve the long term prediction and forecasting of multiple local arthropod pest species. [Methods]  We simulated climate warming in an artificial climatic chamber and investigated the effects of both high and low temperatures on the co-occurrence and interspecific interactions of Aphis glycines and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, we tested interactions between these two arthropod pest species on “leaf discs” from different soybean strains. [Results]  The results of our experiments suggest that relatively low temperatures will benefit aphid populations but higher temperatures will benefit tetranychid mites. At higher temperatures the interspecific competition coefficient is predicted to decrease, that is to say, the environmental carrying capacity will increase significantly. Under current temperature conditions, the interaction between these two arthropod pest species should be defined as “commensalism”, i.e., they are likely to co-occur in the field, and the soybean aphid especially is more likely to outbreak while co-existing with the mite on local, pest-sensitive, soybean strains. In other words, there is a substantial difference in the resistance of different local soybean strains to arthropod pests. [Conclusion]  These results suggest that: Although not currently an issue, there is a high risk of future outbreaks of several arthropod pests on soybean crops in cold areas of China. We need to prepare some management measures for the future, such as selecting pest resistant strains that are suitable for local cultivation. 

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