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发育温度对蜜蜂归巢能力及记忆相关基因表达的影响
Effect of brood developmental temperature on the homing capability and memory related gene expression of worker bees Apis mellifera L.
袁 安** 郭亚惠 黄 晓 廖春华 吴小波***
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2016.157
作者单位:江西农业大学蜜蜂研究所,南昌 330045
中文关键词:意大利蜜蜂,发育温度,回归率,记忆基因
英文关键词:Apis mellifera ligustica, developmental temperature, homing rate, memory genes
中文摘要:

  【目的】 本试验旨在研究不同发育温度对意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera ligustica工蜂归巢能力及学习记忆相关基因表达的影响。【方法】 选择3群群势一致的意大利蜜蜂,控制蜂王在一张经工蜂清理的工蜂巢脾中产卵48 h,之后移至孵化区。子脾即将封盖时,平均分成3块,分别放入33℃(Ⅰ组)、35℃(Ⅱ 组)、37℃(Ⅲ组)的恒温恒湿箱中继续发育(相对湿度为75%±5%),每群为1个重复。工蜂羽化出房时,用不同颜色标记不同发育温度下羽化的工蜂,并放回原蜂王产卵群,测定其采集时期在1 000 m、2 000 m的回归率及不同日龄(刚出房,10日龄,20日龄)工蜂3个记忆相关基因[谷氨酸受体A型基因(Glu-RA)、N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体1型基因(Nmdar1)、酪氨酸受体1型基因(tyr1)]的表达情况。【结果】 结果表明:试验Ⅱ组和试验Ⅲ组发育的采集蜂在1 000 m和2 000 m处的回归率均显著高于Ⅰ组,但试验Ⅱ组与试验Ⅲ组之间差异不显著;试验Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组刚出房工蜂、10日龄工蜂和20日龄工蜂的GluRANmdar1基因相对表达量显著高于试验Ⅰ组,但试验Ⅱ组与Ⅲ组之间差异不显著;试验Ⅱ组刚出房工蜂的Tyr1基因相对表达量显著高于试验Ⅰ组与Ⅲ组,但试验Ⅰ组与试验Ⅲ组之间差异不显著,另外,各试验组10日龄和20日龄工蜂Tyr1基因相对表达量差异均不显著。【结论】 过低发育温度会影响蜜蜂的归巢能力和记忆相关基因的表达。


英文摘要:[Objectives]  The objective of this experiment was to explore the effects of developmental temperature on the homing capability and memory related gene expression levels of worker bees Apis melliferaL. [Methods]  Three honeybee colonies of equal population size were used in experiments. Each queen was confined within an empty frame to lay eggs for 48 hours. Each frame was then separated into three equal sections after larval cells had been capped and the three sections were placed in different incubators and incubated at either 33, 35, or 37℃, until hatching took place. Relative humidity in each incubator was 75%±5%. New born worker bees from each incubator were marked with different colors and returned into their natal colonies. The homing rates of foragers over distances of 1 km and 2 km, and the expression levels of three memory related genes [the glutamate receptor type A gene (GluRA), the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 gene (Nmdar1) and the tyramine receptor type 1 gene (Tyr1)], in day-old (newly emerged), 10-day-old, and 20-day-old worker bees, were measured and compared. [Results]  Homing rates in GroupsⅡandⅢwere significantly higher than in GroupⅠ(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between Groups II and III (P>0.05). GluRA and Nmdar1 were more highly expressed in newly emerged bees, 10-day-old bees and 20-day-old bees in GroupsⅡandⅢcompared to GroupⅠ(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between GroupsⅡandⅢ (P>0.05). Tyr1 was more highly expressed in newly emerged bees in GroupⅡthan in GroupsⅠandⅢ(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between Groups ⅠandⅢ(P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in Tyr1 expression in 10-day-old bees and 20-day-old bees among all three groups (P>0.05). [Conclusion]  Lower developmental temperatures may affect the homing ability and expression of memory related genes in Apis mellifera ligustaca workers.
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