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七种杀虫剂对松毛虫赤眼蜂的田间残留毒性
Residual toxicity of seven pesticides to Trichogramma dendrolimi
冯宏祖1** 刘 军1 王 兰1 李志刚3 许建军2***
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2017.018
作者单位:1. 塔里木大学/新疆建设兵团南疆特色果树生产工程实验室/农业部阿拉尔作物有害生物科学观测实验站/ 塔里木大学南疆农业有害生物综合治理重点实验室,阿拉尔843300;2. 新疆农业科学院植物保护研究所, 乌鲁木齐830091;3. 阿克苏市林业局,阿克苏843000
中文关键词:松毛虫赤眼蜂,杀虫剂,害虫综合治理,生物防治
英文关键词:Trichogramma dendrolimi, insecticide, integrated pest management, biological control
中文摘要:

【目的】 明确常用杀虫剂不同残留期对松毛虫赤眼蜂Trichogramma dendrolimi的影响。【方法】采用模拟实验,测定了7种药剂田间推荐使用剂量对松毛虫赤眼蜂蛹和成虫的残留毒性。【结果】 阿维菌素和毒死蜱对松毛虫赤眼蜂成蜂的毒性最高,在田间推荐使用浓度下,施药后1~3 d赤眼蜂死亡率达到100%,施药后5~10 d死亡率在70%以上,而甲维盐的毒性较低,施药后7 d赤眼蜂死亡率为22.2%,施药后10 d13.3%,与对照无显著性差异。氯虫苯甲酰胺· 高效氯氟氰菊酯1~7 d的死亡率为38%~86.8%,至第10天与清水对照无显著差异。苦参碱也具有较高的毒性,施药后1~7 d赤眼蜂死亡率为28.5%~82.3%氟啶虫胺腈的毒性和氯虫苯甲酰胺·高效氯氟氰菊酯相当,施药后10 d赤眼蜂死亡率与对照差异不明显。在7种待测的药剂中甲氧虫酰肼对赤眼蜂的影响最小,除施药后1~3 d高于对照外,其后赤眼蜂的死亡率与对照无显著差异。在推荐使用剂量下,7种药剂对赤眼蜂蛹羽化出蜂率毒死蜱的影响最大,平均出蜂率为68%,与清水对照差异显著,其它几种药剂对出蜂率无影响。表明在实施释放赤眼蜂的害虫综合治理方案中,尽量避免使用阿维菌素、毒死蜱等农药,而甲氧虫酰肼对赤眼蜂残留毒性较低,可以推广使用;同时根据药剂的残留毒性掌握好最后一次施药与放蜂的间隔期,以免造成对赤眼蜂的伤害。【结论】 为开展害虫综合治理中如何协调化学防治和天敌的控害作用提供了基础数据。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To clarify the residual toxicity of common insecticides on Trichogramma dendrolimi. [Methods] The residual toxicity to Trichogramma pupae and adults of seven insecticides applied at the recommended dose was determined by simulation experiment. [Results]  Avermectin and Chlorpyrifos had the highest toxicity to T. dendrolimi adults, causing 100% mortality after spraying at the recommended concentration for 1-3 days, and 70% mortality after spraying for 5-10 days. Emamectin Benzoate was less toxic, mortality rates declined to 22.2% after spraying for 7 days and to 13.3% after spraying for 10 days, which was not significantly different (P>0.05) to those produced by the control treatment (water). Spraying Gatifloxacin caused mortality of 38%-86.8% during 1-7 days, but mortality was not significantly different to the control (P > 0.05) after spraying for 10 days. Matrine had relatively high toxicity to adult T. dendrolimi with a mortality of 28.5%-82.3% after spraying for 1-7 days. The toxicity of Sulfoxaflor was similar to that of Gatifloxacin, with no significant difference in mortality compared to the control after 10 days. Methoxyfenozide had the least toxicity to T. dendrolimi among seven insecticides tested, with no significant difference in mortality compared to the control after the first 1-3 days of spraying. At the recommended dose, Chlorpyrifos had the greatest influence on the eclosion rate whereas all the other pesticides had no effect. The average eclosion rate after spraying Chlorpyrifos was 68%, which was significantly different from the control. The result showed that application of highly toxic insecticides, such as Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos, should be avoided after releasing Trichogramma as part of an integrated pest management program. The use of low residual toxic insecticides like Methoxyfenozide is recommended. In order to avoid adverse effects on Trichogramma from residual insecticide toxicity, the delay between the final pesticide application and the release of Trichogramma should be more strictly observed. [Conclusion] It provides the basic data for coordinating the chemical control and natural enemies control on integrated pest management.

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