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假臭草花精油的化学组成及对柑橘木虱的 驱避和致死活性
Chemical composition of essential oil of the invasive plant Praxelis clematidea and its repellence and lethality to Diaphorina citri
王奇志1** 刘育梅2 李书明1 赵 颖1 王 伟1
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2018.018
作者单位:1. 华侨大学园艺系,厦门 361021;2. 厦门华侨亚热带植物引种园,厦门 361002
中文关键词:假臭草,精油,柑橘木虱,化学成分,驱避活性,致死活性
英文关键词:Praxelis clematidea, essential oils, Diaphorina citri, chemical components, repellant activity, lethal activity
中文摘要:

【目的】 为了让入侵植物假臭草 Praxelis clematidea (Griseb) R. M. King & H. Rob. 变废为宝,首次探讨了假臭草花精油对柑橘木虱 Diaphorina citri Kuwayama 驱避致死活性,以用于生物防治。【方法】 采用水蒸蒸馏法提取了假臭草不同部位的精油,并通过气相色谱-谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析花精油的化学成分,并检测了其对柑橘木虱的生物活性。【结果】 假臭草花精油得率(0.31±0.03%高于茎叶精油的得率(0.23±0.02%;GC-MS检测显示,假臭草花精油至少含25种化合物,其中β-荜澄茄油烯(43.85%)和β-石竹烯(30.34%是其主要成分花精油浓度为4050 μL·mL-1处理30 min时,对柑橘木虱的驱避反应率均可达到100%不同浓度的花精油对柑橘木虱具有明显的致死活性。当浓度为50 μL·mL-1的时候,浸液法处理九里香Murraya exotica L. 嫩梢18 h时,柑橘木虱校正死亡率分别达56.25±4.79%LC50值为44.83 μL·mL-1,而熏蒸法48 h时的柑橘木虱校正死亡率仅为66.33±5.00%LC5024.80 μL·mL-1。假臭草花精油对柑橘木虱的驱避致死活性可能与其主要成分的作用有关。【结论】 研究结果证明假臭草花精油对柑橘木虱具有良好的驱避致死活性,具有开发成为柑橘木虱驱避剂及杀虫剂的良好潜能。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To investigate potential ways to utilize the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.) R. M. King & H. Rob. The repellence and lethality of floral essential oils of this plant to the Asian citrus psyllid pest Diaphorina citri Kuwayama were determined, and the potential for using these essential oils to control insect pests is discussed. [Methods]  Essential oil yield was determined for different plant parts using the steam distillation method. Floral essential oils were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their repellence and lethality to D. citri were determined. [Results]  Essential oil yield from P. clematidea flowers (0.31±0.03) % was higher than from leaves and stems (0.23±0.02) %. About twenty-five essential oil constituents were identified, the major constituents being β-Cubebene (43.85%) and β-Caryophyllene (30.34%). Oil concentrations of 40 μL·mL-1 and 50 μL·mL-1 had 100% repellence rate after 30 min. Different concentrations of floral essential oils from P. clematidea varied markedly in lethality to D. citri. Using the immersion method with LC50 values of 44.83 μL·mL-1, concentrations of 50 μL·mL-1 had a corrected mortality of (56.25±4.79)% after 18 h. In contrast, the fumigation method with LC50 values of 24.80 μL·mL-1 had a corrected mortality rate of (66.33±5.00) after 48 h. The main components of the P. clematidea essential oil can effectively repel and kill D. citri. [Conclusion]  Floral essential oils of P. clematidea have significant repellent and lethal effects on D. citri and therefore have potential as repellents and insecticides.

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