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害虫管理:从“综合”到“整合”
From ‘comprehensive’ to ‘integrated’ pest management
戈 峰
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2020.001
作者单位:中国科学院动物研究所,农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室,北京 100101; 中国科学院大学,生物互作卓越创新中心,北京 100049
中文关键词:害虫综合治理;技术;实施;优先步骤;措施间协调;整合作用
英文关键词:integrated pest management; technology; implementation; priority steps; measures coordination; integration
中文摘要:
害虫综合治理(Integrated pest management,IPM)中的“Integrated”除了综合的意思,其实更多表述的是“整合”。在进行害虫防治时,不能将各个措施简单地综合应用,而应在充分了解各种措施之间相互作用的基础上,将其整合成一个系统(整体),更好地服务于害虫管理。本文基于国内外害虫管理的进展与实践,论述了近年来害虫管理发展的4种理念更新、4项策略演变和3大技术革新,提出了害虫管理优先方案5个步骤,指出了整合过程的5个层次及11个科学问题,强调害虫管理应本着“预防为主、生态优先、综合治理”的植保方针,秉持“生态、有效、经济、简便”技术原则,重点从综合走向整合,构建我国不同区域特色的害虫管理生态工程,开展害虫整合治理,达到经济可行、生态可持续、社会可接受的目的。
英文摘要:

Integrated pest management (IPM) is defined as a holistic ‘approach’, or ‘strategy’, of combatting plant pests with minimal applications of chemical pesticides. Rather than relying on a single control method, it involves integrating a diverse range of pest control techniques into the agroecosystem, which requires in depth understanding of the interactions between these techniques. This paper reviews recent advances in IPM both at home and abroad. Four fundamental principles of pest control, four control strategies and three technological innovations, have been developed since the 1950’s. A five step prioritization scheme for pest management with five levels associated with 11 scientific problems in the integration process have been advanced for managing pests more effectively. We emphasize that pest management should comply with the crop protection principle of "prevention first, making ecology a priority and using integrated management", and the use of “ecologically friendly, effective, economic and simple” methods. Thus, we propose that IPM should integrate and optimize all available control elements such as ecological tactics, modern biotechnology, as well as biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools, into the agroecosystem to achieve economic profitability, ecological sustainability and social acceptability.


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