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茶翅蝽生长发育、繁殖及若虫 各龄期形态特征研究
Development, fecundity and nymph morphology, of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (St?l)
詹海霞;陈菊红;米倩倩;李文敬;张 峰;张金平
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2020.043
作者单位:中国农业科学院植物保护研究所,农业农村部-CABI生物安全联合实验室,北京 100193;安徽省农业科学院作物研究所, 合肥 230031;吉林农业大学植物保护学院,长春 130118;CABI东亚中心,北京 100081
中文关键词:茶翅蝽;发育历期;成虫寿命;繁殖力;若虫体型大小;若虫形态特征
英文关键词:Halyomorpha halys; developmental duration; longevity; fecundity; body size of nymphs; morphological characteristics of nymphs
中文摘要:
【目的】 为掌握茶翅蝽Halyomorpha halys (Stål)的发生及为害特性,进一步采取有效的防治措施,本文测定了茶翅蝽卵到成虫的发育历期、成虫的寿命及其繁殖能力,并研究了茶翅蝽若虫各龄期的形态特征。【方法】 本文在温度(25±1)℃,湿度RH 70%±5%,光照周期16 L∶8 D的实验条件下,采用单头饲养法,测定了茶翅蝽从卵到成虫的生长发育历期、1-5龄若虫的形态特征,并通过新羽化成虫配对饲养测定成虫的寿命及雌虫的繁殖能力。【结果】 茶翅蝽卵到成虫的发育历期为(44.98±2.54)d,其中卵的发育历期为(6.90±0.05)d,孵化率为96.06%;若虫总发育历期为(38.08±2.49)d,1-5龄历期分别为(5.41±0.17)、(9.17±0.15)、(6.73±0.16)、(7.46±0.49)和(9.28±0.32)d,若虫总存活率为59.97%;雌、雄成虫寿命分别为(30.80±2.41)d和(36.56±2.82)d;雌成虫产卵前期为11.80 d,持续产卵期为14.08 d,单雌一生平均产卵量为83.80粒。茶翅蝽1龄若虫色彩鲜艳,黄色、褐色或橘红色,体长为(1.93±       0.03)mm,宽为(1.43±0.02)mm,足胫节黑色无白斑;2-5龄若虫主体均为黑色,2龄胸部背板黑色、无黄斑,足胫节黑色无白斑,体长为(2.52±0.05)mm,宽为(1.73±0.03)mm;3龄胸部背板黑色且有黄斑、无翅芽,足胫节黑色并带有白斑或白环,体长为(4.29±0.05)mm,宽为(2.93±0.06)mm;4龄翅芽开始显现延伸至后胸后缘,足胫节有白环,体长为(6.46±0.10)mm,宽为(4.46±0.08)mm;5龄翅芽末端近达腹部第2节后缘,足胫节有白环,体长为(9.25±0.19)mm,宽为(6.18±0.16)mm。【结论】 在25 ℃下,茶翅蝽卵到成虫的发育历期为44.98 d,卵到成虫的存活率为57.60%,平均每雌产卵量为83.80粒。翅芽的发育特征及足胫节上是否有白色环纹是辨别若虫各龄期的重要依据。
英文摘要:
[Objectives]   To determine the developmental duration from egg to adult, fecundity and longevity of Halyomorpha halys adults, and describe the morphological characteristics of each nymph instar. [Methods]  Individual egg masses of H. halys were hatched in a Petri dish. First to 5th instar nymphs were individually reared and checked after each molt to record their developmental duration and morphological characteristics. The fecundity and lifespan of H. halys adults were measured by rearing male and female pairs. All experiments were conducted at (25±1) ℃, 65%±5% RH, under a 16L∶8D photoperiod. [Results]  The developmental duration of H. halys from egg to adult was (44.98±2.54) d. The duration of the egg stage was 6.90 d, and the hatching rate was 96.06%. The total duration of the nymph stage was (38.08±2.49) d, and that of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instars was (5.41±0.17), (9.17±0.15), (6.73±0.16), (7.46±0.49) and (9.28±0.32) d, respectively. The average survival rate of nymphs was 59.76%. The mean longevity of females and males was (30.80±2.41) and (36.56±2.82) d, respectively. The lifetime fecundity of H. halys females was 83.80 eggs on average. The duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods was 11.80 and 14.08 d, respectively. 1st instar nymphs are usually yellowish, brown or orange in color, with a body length of (1.93±0.03) mm and width of (1.43±0.02) mm. 2nd-5th instar nymphs are often black (not as colorful as 1st instar nymphs). The 2nd instar has a black chest dorsal area without yellow freckling, black tibiae without white spots and a body length and width of (2.52±0.05) mm and (1.73±0.03) mm, respectively. The 3rd instar has a black chest dorsal area with yellow freckling, black tibiae with white spots or annulation, and a body length and width of (4.29±0.05) mm and (2.93±0.06) mm, respectively. The 4th instar has wing buds that extend to the edge of the posterior thorax, black tibiae with white annulation, and a body length and width of (6.46±0.10) mm and (4.46±0.08) mm, respectively. The 5th instar has very obvious wing buds reaching to the end of the posterior margin of the 2nd ventral segment, black tibiae with white rings, and a body length and width of (9.25±0.19) mm and (6.18±0.16) mm, respectively. [Conclusion]  The developmental duration of H. halys from egg to adult was (44.98±2.54) d and the survival rate was 57.60%. The lifetime fecundity was 83.80 eggs per female. The developmental stage of wing buds and the presence of white annulation on the tibiae are key morphological characteristics for distinguishing different nymph instars.
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