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不同农业有机废弃物对白星花金龟生物学特性影响研究
The effects of different agricultural organic wastes on the biological characteristics of Protaetia (Liocola) brevitarsis (Lewis)
杨 柳;张广杰;徐 韬;张连俊;李金兰;张 帅;羌 松;马德英 刘玉升
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2020.097
作者单位:新疆农业大学农学院,农林有害生物监测与安全防控重点实验室; 山东农业大学植物保护学院
中文关键词:白星花金龟;生长发育;农业有机废弃物
英文关键词:Protaetia brevitarsis; growth and development; agricultural organic waste
中文摘要:
【目的】 白星花金龟Protaetia (Liocola) brevitarsis (Lewis)幼虫取食农作物秸秆、畜禽粪便等农业废弃物,在自然界中发挥着净化环境、变废为宝的作用。【方法】 本文选用8种农牧业有机废弃物,包括腐熟沼渣、平菇菌糠、猪粪、牛粪、玉米秸秆、25%玉米秸秆+牛粪、50%玉米秸秆+牛粪、75%玉米秸秆+牛粪作为饲料,研究不同农业有机废弃物对白星花金龟生物学特性的影响。【结果】 沼渣组和平菇菌糠组单雌产卵量较高,分别为130.17粒和117.00粒,显著高于猪粪、牛粪和玉米秸秆处理;在牛粪与玉米秸秆混配组,各处理单雌产卵量为101.50-108.67粒,不同混合比例间无显著差异。从幼虫孵化率比较,平菇菌糠组和猪粪组幼虫孵化率较高,分别为87.78%和82.22%;玉米秸秆及其与牛粪不同比例混合处理的幼虫孵化率均很低,仅为46.67%-57.78%。从幼虫化蛹率、羽化率比较,玉米秸秆添加不同比例牛粪处理组的化蛹率和羽化率均较高,分别达到90.00%-95.56%和88.89%-91.11%;沼渣、猪粪等单一物质处理的化蛹率和羽化率均较低,分别低于90%和70%。单一物质处理中,沼渣、平菇菌糠、牛粪、玉米秸秆处理组羽化后均为雌虫比例大于雄虫比例。玉米秸秆与牛粪混配组中,仅50%玉米秸秆+牛粪处理组为雌虫比例大于雄虫比例;雌、雄成虫的体长及体宽均在(17-19)mm、(10-11)mm之间,沼渣、猪粪和牛粪处理组体长略小。以不同农业有机废弃物饲喂的白星花金龟全世代发育历期中,牛粪饲喂组白星花金龟历期最短,为(315.29±0.55)d;沼渣饲喂组白星花金龟历期最长,为(330.75±1.76)d。【结论】 不同农业有机废弃物均可作为白星花金龟繁育基质,并可为其幼虫转化处理农业有机废弃物提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
[Objectives]  The larvae of Protaetia (Liocola) brevitarsis (Lewis) feed on crop stalks and livestock manure, which plays a role in purifying the environment in nature. In order to better play the role of biological conversion of agricultural organic waste. [Methods]  The biological characteristics of P. brevitarsis were studied by using 8 principal agricultural organic wastes produced in agriculture and animal husbandry, including the renewal, oyster mushroom, pig manure, shard, corn stalk as well as shard mixed with 25% corn stalk, 50% corn stalk and 75% corn stalk as feeding matrix. [Results]  The highest spawning amount was obtained in the treatment of renewal and oyster mushroom, with 130.17 and 117.00 eggs/female; It was significantly higher than that of pig manure, shard and corn stalk; Regarding the different proportion mixture treatments of shard and corn stalk, the spawning amount was obtained in the treatment with 101.50-108.67 eggs/female; there was no significant difference between different mixing ratios. Compared with the larval hatching rate, the larval hatching rate of oyster mushroom and pig manure was 87.78% and 82.22%; The hatching rate of corn stalk mixed with shard in different rate was all very low, only 46.67%-57.78%. From the rate of larval pupation and feather comparison, The pupation rate and feather rate of corn stalk treated with different proportion of shard were higher, reaching 90.00%-95.56% and 88.89%-91.11%. The pupation rate and eclosion rate of renewal and pig manure were lower than 90% and 70%. In the treatment of single substance, the proportion of female worms was higher than that of male worms in the treatment of renewal, oyster mushroom, shard andcorn stalk. In the mixed treatment group of corn stalk and shard, the proportion of female worms was higher than male worms in the 50% corn stalk+shard groups.The length and width of female and male adults were 17-19 mm and 10-11 mm respectively. The body length of renewal, pig manure and shard treatment group was slightly smaller; Feeding different agricultural organic wastes to the whole developmental cycle of P. brevitarsis, shard feeding group turtle calendar period is the shortest, is (315.29±0.55) d; renewal feeding group turtle calendar period is the longest, is (330.75±1.76) d. [Conclusion]  Different agricultural organic wastes can be used as breeding grounds for P. brevitarsis, the production practice in Xinjiang shows that it has the feasibility of high value utilization, it can provide a theoretical basis for the larval transformation of agricultural organic waste.
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