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抗药性昆虫相对适合度的研究进展
Progress in research on the relative fitness of insecticide-resistant insects
王争艳 王文芳 苗世远 鲁玉杰
点击:1069次 下载:78次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2021.051
作者单位:河南工业大学粮油食品学院,郑州 450001
中文关键词:杀虫剂抗性;适合度;不利影响;等位基因置换;修饰基因;抗性治理
英文关键词:insecticide resistance; fitness; deleterious effects; allelic replacement; modifier genes; resistance management
中文摘要:
杀虫剂抗性基因的突变对昆虫生理生化的影响体现为种群适合度的变化。种群抗性等位基因频率和生物学适合度可用来表征抗性昆虫相对适合度。抗性相关靶标和代谢酶的突变会改变昆虫正常的生理功能,抗性基因过量表达会引起昆虫体内生理能量分配失衡,两者均会造成抗性代价。但是,抗性等位基因置换和修饰基因可以抵消抗性代价。抗性昆虫相对适合度的表现型取决于抗药性形成的遗传背景和抗性水平。此外,其表现型还受到各种生态因素的影响。抗性昆虫相对适合度的研究结果可为预测抗药性发展趋势、开展抗药性治理提供科学依据。
英文摘要:Fitness changes associated with insecticide resistance are a consequence of biochemical and physiological changes associated with resistant genotypes. Relative fitness of insecticide resistant insects can be defined either as selection pressure acting against the mutations conferring resistance in natural populations, or as resistance-associated change in physiology and/or in life history traits. Changes in target receptors or metabolic enzymes can disrupt normal molecular process, and over-expression of an enzyme or receptor might divert energy from fitness-enhancing functions. Both kinds of change lead to a tradeoff between resistance and other fitness-related traits. Nevertheless, allelic replacement and modifier genes can be selected to ameliorate the cost of resistance. Phenotypes of relative fitness are dependent on a population’s genetic background during the evolution of resistance and resistance levels and are also influenced by ecological factors. Knowledge of the relative fitness of resistant insects improves understanding of the evolutionary processes of insecticide resistance and resistance management.
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