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鸡嗉子榕蜂群落中雌蜂触角感器及适生意义
Antennal sensilla and ecological adaptations of female symbiotic fig wasps in Ficus semicordata
刘志祥 杨 培 李宗波
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2021.074
作者单位:西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室,昆明 650224;云南中医药大学,昆明 650500
中文关键词:鸡嗉子榕;榕小蜂群落;雌蜂;触角感器;进化适应性;多孔板形感器;感知指数
英文关键词:Ficus semicordata; fig wasp community; female wasp; antennal sensilla; evolutionary adaptation; multiparous placoid sensilla; sensory index
中文摘要:
目的】 感知化学信息是榕小蜂群落组成和功能分化的基础,以触角为代表的感觉器官,恰能反映其寄主识别和繁殖中所承受的进化压力和适应形态。本文旨在对当前唯一以“专有信息通道”为基础形成的鸡嗉子榕Ficus semicordata榕蜂群落中雌蜂触角感器进行系统研究,探讨感器的形态分化及生态适应性。【方法】 采用扫描电镜技术观察5种鸡嗉子榕小蜂雌蜂的触角及其感器,确定了5种雌蜂触角感器的类型、形态、数量和分布,分析了多孔板形感器的比表面积与挥发物释放量之间的相关性。【结果】 5种雌蜂触角均呈膝状,由柄节、梗节和数量不等的鞭亚节形成的鞭节组成,传粉榕小蜂和非传粉榕小蜂触角的主要差别在于第1鞭亚节处着生的脊骨突和梗节背面的角锥形感器。触角上共发现7类10种感器,分别为毛形感器、刺形感器(类型1、类型2和类型3)、锥形感器(类型1和类型2)、栓锥型乳突状感器、腔锥形感器、多孔板形感器和角锥形感器,其中腔锥形感器和角锥形感器仅见于传粉榕小蜂触角上,毛形感器和刺形感器1数量最多,分布最广泛;锥形感器和栓锥型乳突状感器常见于鞭节中上部;多孔板形感器分布于触角的索节和棒节处,交替环状排列,且随榕小蜂产卵时序后延,多孔板形感器感知指数呈递减趋势,并与不同发育期榕果的挥发物释放量呈显著正相关关系。【结论】 不同功能物种的榕小蜂触角及其感器有明显的生态适应性,特别是增加多孔板形感器数量和长度来提高对气味物质的感知,利于解释榕蜂群落内的信息调控与稳定共存。
英文摘要:
[Objectives]  Sensing chemical cues from the environment is critical to the multispecies interactions and ecological guilds of fig wasps. The antennae, a significant sensory organ of fig wasps, have morphological adaptations that reflect the evolutionary pressure on this species for accurate host recognition and reproduction. This study aims to investigate the morphological diversity and ecological adaptation of different sensilla on the antennae of female fig wasps associated with Ficus semicordata, which hosts fig wasp colonies based on the private channel of only known case of pollination mutualism. [Methods]  The antennae and associated sensilla of five fig wasp species were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the sensilla type, ultramorphology, abundance and distribution of each species were compared. The correlation between the MPS surface area ratio and amounts of volatiles released during fig development was also analyzed. [Results]  The antenna of each wasp are geniculate, consisting of a scape, a pedicel, and a flagellum that differs in the number of flagellomeres. A significant difference between pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps is that the latter have a spine-like expansion from the first flagellomere and sensilla obscurum on the dorsal surface of the pedicel. Ten morphological types of antennal sensilla, including sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla chaetica, two types of sensilla basiconica, sensilla basiconic capitate peg, sensilla coeloconica, multiporous placoid sensilla and sensilla obscurum, were identified and described in the five species. Of the identified sensilla, sensilla coeloconica and sensilla obscurum occur only on the antennae of pollinating fig wasps, whereas sensilla trichodea and sensilla chaetica type 1 were both more abundant and found on the antennae of all five species. Sensilla basiconica and sensilla basiconic capitate peg occurr most often on the upper-middle part of the flagellum. Multiporous placoid sensilla show a circular arrangement and are distributed exclusively on the funicle and clava of the antennae. Furthermore, the sensory index tended to be lower in species in which oviposition occurred later. There is a significant positive correlation between the sensory index and amounts of volatile compounds released during fig development. [Conclusion]  The antennae and sensilla of fig wasps display morphological adaptations related to host identification and the detection of volatile compounds, particularly thickening and lengthening of multiparous placoid sensilla for trapping volatile odors. These results further understanding of the role of chemical mediation in promoting the stability of fig wasp colonies.
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