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中国南方稻区半翅目害虫寄生蜂物种多样性及群落结构分析
Community structure and diversity of wasps which parasitize hemipteran pests in the rice-growing region of southern China
何佳春;胡 阳;张 明;魏 琪;李 波;何雨婷;万品俊;赖凤香;王渭霞;于文娟;谢茂成;陈祥
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.113
作者单位:中国水稻研究所,水稻生物学国家重点实验室,杭州 310006;贵州大学昆虫研究所,贵州省昆虫资源开发利用 特色重点实验室,贵阳 550025
中文关键词:寄生蜂;半翅目害虫;中国南方稻区;群落;多样性;稻飞虱
英文关键词:parasitic wasps; Hemiptera pests; rice-growing region of southern China; diversity; community; rice planthopper
中文摘要:
【目的】 探明我国南方稻区半翅目害虫寄生蜂物种多样性及群落结构,了解寄生蜂优势种类及分布情况,为实现保护和利用天敌进行控害提供理论基础。【方法】 采用马氏网法对我国南方10省(市、区)10个地区水稻生长季的寄生蜂群落进行持续采样和调查。【结果】 本研究共采集到半翅目害虫109种初寄生蜂和9种重寄生蜂,初寄生蜂以缨小蜂科(31种)种类最多,其次是螯蜂科(21种)。通过对10个地区稻田寄生蜂群落分析表明,各地半翅目害虫寄生蜂种类数量占比在20.62%-27.37%之间,个体数量占比在29.81%-57.84%之间;其中缨小蜂科寄生蜂的种类和数量占比均为最高,种类占比在28.57%-39.39%之间,数量占比在62.80%-87.73%之间;以稻飞虱包括褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens、白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera和灰飞虱Laodelphax striatellus为寄主的寄生蜂种类和数量占比最高,分别在19.72%-29.41%之间和57.47%-85.84%之间。通过对各地稻飞虱寄生蜂亚群落多样性和相似性比较发现,约有30%的稻飞虱寄生蜂种类在各地均有分布,其中最常见的有稻虱缨小蜂Anagrus nilaparvatae、斯里兰卡缨小蜂Mymar taprobanicum、褐腰赤眼蜂Paracentrobia andoi、长突寡索赤眼蜂Oligosita shibuyae、叶蝉寡索赤眼蜂O. nephotetticum、黄腿双距螯蜂Gonatopus flavifemur和稻虱红单节螯蜂Haplogonatopus apicalis【结论】 我国南方稻区半翅目害虫寄生蜂种类十分丰富,其物种丰富度和个体数量在各地稻区寄生蜂群落均为主要类群,其中以缨小蜂科、赤眼蜂科和螯蜂科种类和数量最多,且优势种类在南方稻区广泛分布,同时也是稻飞虱最主要的寄生蜂天敌。本研究结果为更好地保护和利用寄生蜂防控稻田半翅目害虫提供了重要参考。
英文摘要:
[Objectives]  To investigate the community structure and diversity of wasps that parasitize hemipteran pests in the rice producing region of southern China, and thereby provide baseline information to facilitate the use of parasitic wasps to control important rice pests in this region. [Methods]  Malaise traps were used to investigate the composition of parasitic wasp communities. [Results]  109 species of primary parasitic wasps, and 9 species of hyperparasitic wasps, were collected. Among the primary parasitic wasps collected, most species (31) belonged to the Mymaridae, followed by the Dryinidae (21). At ten sampling sites, parasitic wasps comprised 20.62%-27.37% of all species collected and 29.81%-57.84% of individual specimens. Most species, and individual specimens, belonged to the Mymaridae, which comprised 28.57%-39.39% and 62.80%-87.73%, respectively, of the total. Parasitic wasps that parasitize the rice planthopper comprised the 19.72%-29.41% of all species collected and 57.47%-85.84% of individual specimens. About 30% of species were distributed over all regions; Anagrus nilaparvatae, Mymar taprobanicum, Paracentrobia andoi, Oligosita shibuyae, O. nephotetticum, Gonatopus flavifemur and Haplogonatopus apicalis were collected from all sampling sites indicating that these species are widely distributed. [Conclusion]  The Mymaridae, Trichogrammidae and Dryinidae are the main wasp taxa that parasitize hemipteran pests in the rice-growing region of southern China. Species diversity is high diversity and dominant species are widely distributed throughout the southern rice-growing region. These findings provide useful baseline information for protecting and utilizing parasitic wasps to control hemipteran pests in paddy fields.
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