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美国白蛾对我国东北地区八种主要树种的选择及取食偏好性
Preferences of Hyphantria cunea for the leaves of eight widely planted main tree species in Heilongjiang, China
吕金言,陶萌萌,张春文,叶 懿,吴成丹,孟昭军,严善春
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.005
作者单位:东北林业大学林学院,哈尔滨 150040
中文关键词:美国白蛾;寄主树木;取食行为;选择率
英文关键词:Hyphantria cunea; host trees; feeding behavior; selective rate
中文摘要:

【目的】 明确美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea对黑龙江省广泛分布、栽植的8种树木的选择及其取食适应性。【方法】 采用Y型嗅觉仪测定美国白蛾雌雄成虫及4龄幼虫对紫椴Tilia amurensis、黄檗Phellodendron amurense、小叶杨Populus simonii、兴安落叶松Larix gmelinii、蒙古栎Quercus mongolica、水曲柳Fraxinus mandshurica、紫丁香Syringa oblata和白桦Betula platyphylla的选择反应;养虫盒内放入1种树木叶片及美国白蛾4龄幼虫,24 h后分别测定4龄幼虫对8种树木的取食率。【结果】 除兴安落叶松外,美国白蛾未交尾雌虫对其余7种树木选择率均显著高于对照(P < 0.05);已交尾雌虫对紫椴、小叶杨、蒙古栎和水曲柳的选择显著大于对照(P < 0.05);而未交配雄虫对8种树木均无显著选择反应。美国白蛾4龄幼虫对紫椴、黄檗、小叶杨、蒙古栎、水曲柳和白桦的选择显著大于对照(P < 0.05);4龄幼虫对紫椴的平均取食率最高,且显著高于小叶杨、黄檗、兴安落叶松、蒙古栎、水曲柳和紫丁香(P < 0.05),对白桦、小叶杨、黄檗、兴安落叶松、蒙古栎和水曲柳的取食率显著高于紫丁香(P < 0.05)。【结论】 美国白蛾雌成虫和4龄幼虫均对紫椴、小叶杨、蒙古栎和水曲柳有明显的选择偏好,且4龄幼虫对以上树木取食率显著高于紫丁香,该4种树木可能为美国白蛾生长发育的适宜寄主。

英文摘要:

[Objective]  To investigate the selection and feeding adaptability of Hyphantria cunea with respect to eight widely distributed and planted trees in Heilongjiang province. [Methods]  The behavioral responses of 4th instar larvae and male and female adults to the leaf odors of Tilia amurensisPhellodendron amurens, Populus simonii, Larix gmelinii, Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Syringa oblata and Betula platyphylla were measured in a Y-type olfactometer. The leaves of a single tree species and 4th instar larvae of H. cunea were placed in the olfactometer and the feeding rate of larvae on the leaves was determined after 24 hours. [Results]  Unmated female moths significantly preferred the leaves of all tree species, except of L. gmelinii, to the control (P<0.05). Mated female moths significantly preferred the leaves of T. amurensis, P. simonii, Q. mongolica and F. mandshurica to the control (P < 0.05). However, unmated male moths showed no significant preference for the leaves of all eight tree species over the control. Fourth instar larvae significantly preferred the leaves of T. amurensis, P. amurense, P. simonii, Q. mongolica, F. mandshurica and B. platyphylla to the control (P < 0.05). Fourth instar larvae fed significantly more on T. amurensis leaves than they did on those of P. simonii, P. amurenseL. gmelinii, Q. mongolica, F. mandshurica or S. oblata (P < 0.05). They also fed significantly more on the leaves of B. platyphylla, P. simonii, P. amurense, L. gmelinii, Q. mongolica and F. mandshurica than on those of S. oblata (P<0.05). [Conclusion]  Female adults and 4th instar larvae of H. cunea preferred the odour of leaves T. amurensis, P. simonii, Q. mongolica and F. mandshurica to those of P. amurens, L. gmelinii, S. oblata or B. platyphylla, and fourth instar larvae also consumed significantly more of the leaves of these species than those of S. oblata. These results suggest that T. amurensis, P. simonii, Q. mongolica and F. mandshurica could be suitable hosts for the growth and development of H. cunea.

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