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武汉地区蜚蠊群落演替及其特征
Population dynamics and community succession of cockroach species in the Wuhan area
柳 静,周仲瑾,陈晓敏,吴太平,刘小泉,林 元,田俊华
点击:295次 下载:17次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.028
作者单位:武汉市疾病预防控制中心,武汉 430024
中文关键词:蜚蠊;群落特征;演替
英文关键词:cockroaches; community characteristics; succession
中文摘要:

【目的】 掌握武汉地区蜚蠊群落结构和不同种群长期变化特征,探讨蜚蠊群落演替特征,为城市蜚蠊的防制提供科学依据。【方法】 1995-2019年在武汉的居民区、餐饮店、宾馆、农贸市场、医院及超市等生境,以新鲜面包屑作为诱饵,采用粘捕法调查蜚蠊群落多样性。【结果】 1995-2019年,共捕获蜚蠊41 257只,经鉴定隶属1科2属4种。其中德国小蠊Blattella germanica和黑胸大蠊Periplaneta fuliginosa为优势种,相对多度分别为77.99%和15.36%;美洲大蠊Periplaneta americana为常见种,澳洲大蠊Periplaneta australasiae为稀有种,相对多度分别为6.64%和0.01%。德国小蠊密度与蜚蠊总平均密度年际变化趋势一致,总体趋势先上升后下降。黑胸大蠊和美洲大蠊密度年际变化呈下降趋势。武汉地区蜚蠊全年活动,季节消长呈单峰型,9月份为密度最高峰。不同生境间蜚蠊密度差异显著(F=9.048,P<0.01)。其中农贸市场的蜚蠊密度最高(1.65只/张),蜚蠊密度年际变化呈上升趋势;医院蜚蠊密度最低(0.11只/张),年际变化趋势较平稳。居民区生境蜚蠊密度缓慢下降,餐饮店和宾馆生境蜚蠊密度先上升后下降。不同年份蜚蠊群落的系统聚类和非度量多维标度排序分析可以将不同年份的蜚蠊群落分成4组。【结论】 武汉地区蜚蠊群落结构发生了明显的改变,城市蜚蠊优势种群由大蠊逐渐演替成德国小蠊。不同种类和不同生境的蜚蠊种群密度有明显的年际动态。要做好农贸市场、餐饮店、宾馆、超市等重点场所蜚蠊的防治,警惕农贸市场蜚蠊密度的上升。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To investigate cockroach community structure in the Wuhan area, including long-term changes in the abundance of different species and successional characteristics, in order to improve the control of urban cockroaches. [Methods]  We used fresh bread crumbs as bait and sticky paper to trap and investigate the diversity of the cockroach community in six typical habitats, including residential areas, restaurants, hotels, farmers’ markets, hospitals and supermarkets in the Wuhan area from 1995 to 2019. [Results]  A total of 41 257 cockroaches were captured, which were classified into 1 family, 2 genera and 4 species. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta fuliginosa were the dominant species, with relative abundances of 77.99% and 15.36%, respectively. Periplaneta americana was a common species with a relative abundances of 6.64%, whereas Periplaneta australasiae was a rare species with a relative abundance of just 0.01%. Consistent with the annual trend in overall cockroach density, annual variation in B. germanica density first increased, then decreased. Annual variation in the density of P. fuliginosa and P. americana trended downwards. Cockroaches can be captured throughout the year in the Wuhan area but there is a single peak in abundance September. There were significant differences in cockroach density between different habitats (F=9.048, P<0.01). The highest density (1.65 per trap) was in farmers’ markets where the annual population trend was upward, whereas the lowest density (0.11 per trap) was in hospitals where populations tended to be stable. The density of cockroaches in residential areas slowly decreased over time, and that in restaurants and hotels first increased, then decreased. Cockroach communities in different years can be divided into four groups by systematic clustering and a non-metric multidimensional scale ranking analysis. [Conclusion]  Cockroach community structure in the Wuhan area has undergone significant changes. The dominant species have gradually changed from P. fuliginosa and P. americana to B. germanica. There were obvious annual changes in the population density of different species in different habitats. It is necessary to focus the prevention and control of cockroaches in key places such as farmers’ markets, restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets. There is a particular need for vigilance in farmer’s markets to prevent cockroaches reaching high densities.

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