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酒泉市不同生境人工引进大斑啄木鸟控制光肩星天牛效果比较
The effect of introducing the great spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos major, to different habitats in Jiuquan to control Anoplophora glabripennis
魏秀红,王立祥,马寿鹏,李 燕,齐丽君
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.029
作者单位:酒泉市林果服务中心,酒泉 735000
中文关键词:光肩星天牛;生境;大斑啄木鸟;招引保护;生物防治
英文关键词:Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB); habitat; Dendrocopos major; attraction and protection; biological control
中文摘要:


【目的】 明确大斑啄木鸟Dendrocopos major(GSW)有效防治光肩星天牛Anoplophora glabripennis(ALB),为甘肃省河西走廊利用大斑啄木鸟控制光肩星天牛灾害提供理论依据。【方法】 2018-2021年,在酒泉市肃州区调查了西汉酒泉胜迹(城市园林)、清水镇梧桐苑(乡村沿路小游园)、三合林场(人工纯林)、西峰试验站(农田防护林)4种不同生境下大斑啄木鸟对光肩星天牛的控制效果,统计了光肩星天牛虫口减退率和有虫株率,并采用样线法调查了大斑啄木鸟的单位面积(6.67 hm2)发现次数和啄痕数量。【结果】 不同生境下4块对照样地的光肩星天牛有虫株率上升或保持在60%左右;而4块试验样地光肩星天牛有虫株率则大幅度下降,校正虫口减退率均呈稳定增长;且4种生境下大斑啄木鸟的单位面积发现次数和啄痕数量也均呈上升趋势。其中三合林场试验样地虫口减退率增幅最大,由2018年的1.13%上升到2021年的6.97%;西汉酒泉胜迹、梧桐苑、三合林场和西峰试验站试验样地的光肩星天牛有虫株率降幅分别为40%、35%、30%和22%。截止2021年,三合林场啄痕总数量最高(189个),西峰试验站最低(29个)。4年间,不同试验样地大斑啄木鸟啄痕数均逐年增加,啄痕年增长率除西汉酒泉胜迹呈持续增加外,其余3个样地均在2018年出现峰值,此后年增长率减缓。西汉酒泉胜迹、梧桐苑和西峰试验站单位面积啄木鸟出现次数与有虫株率呈显著负相关,梧桐苑单位面积啄木鸟出现次数与校正虫口减退率呈显著正相关。【结论】 本研究进一步证实了人工引进大斑啄木鸟能有效控制光肩星天牛灾害,且生境条件是影响大斑啄木鸟控制光肩星天牛效果的主要因素。在河西走廊光肩星天牛发生区可营造适宜的啄木鸟生境,人工招引并保护大斑啄木鸟,进而控制光肩星天牛等蛀干类害虫。


英文摘要:


[Objectives]  To determine whether the great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major (GSW), an important predator of stem boring pests, can be used as a biological control for the longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu province. [Methods]  Control of ALB by the GSW was monitored in 4 different habitats in Suzhou District, Jiuquan City from 2018 to 2021. The rate of decline of the ALB population and the proportion of infested plants were counted, and transects were used to count the number of GSW and GSW peck marks per unit area (6.67 hm2). [Results]  The ALB population declined in control plots in all four habitats. In test plots, the proportion of insect-infested plants decreased significantly, and the corrected rate of insect population decline steadily accelerated. There was an upward trend in the number of GSW found per unit area and the number of peck marks in the 4 habitats. Over the past 4 years, the number of peck marks in experimental plots has increased yearly. With the exception of Jiuquan park, the number of peck marks has continued to increase annually. The rate of increase in peck marks in the other three plots peaked in 2018, and has since slowed down. The frequency of GSW per unit area in the West Han Dynasty Jiuquan scenic spot, Wutong garden and Xifeng experimental station is significantly, negatively correlated with the proportion of insect-infested plants. [Conclusion]  Introducing the GSW can effectively control ALB and habitat quality appears to be the main factor affecting the success of such biological control. If suitable GSW habitat can be created in the Hexi Corridor, then effective biological control of stem-boring pests such as the ALB is feasible.


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