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中国蜂蜜出口和进口分析
Analysis of the import and export of honey to, and from, China
曾 蜜,周伟良,颜伟玉,曾志将
点击:294次 下载:45次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.068
作者单位:江西省蜜蜂生物学与饲养重点实验室,南昌 330045
中文关键词:蜜蜂;蜂蜜;出口;进口;中国
英文关键词:honeybee; honey; export; import; China
中文摘要:

【目的】 系统评价我国蜂蜜出口和进口情况。【方法】 基于1981至2020年我国蜂蜜进出口的时间序列数据,选取了蜂蜜进出口量、蜂蜜进出口金额、蜂蜜进出口单价、蜂蜜进出口贸易综合指数、蜂蜜进出口单价比等作为衡量蜂蜜进出口贸易指标。【结果】 1981至2020年期间,中国占世界蜂蜜出口量18.60%-30.52%(平均22.87%),已成为世界蜂蜜出口第一大国,但中国蜂蜜出口单价一直处于低位,是世界蜂蜜出口平均单价的66.86%,德国蜂蜜出口平均单价的40.32%;从蜂蜜出口国贸易综合指数来看,虽然中国蜂蜜出口单价低有一定价格优势,但也存在潜在竞争对手;中国蜂蜜进口量、蜂蜜进口金额和蜂蜜进口单价都在快速增长,但蜂蜜进口单价快速增长,导致进口蜂蜜销售价格远远高于国产蜂蜜;中国蜂蜜进口单价明显高于出口单价,特别是2011-2015年,2016-2020年蜂蜜进口单价与出口单价比分别为4.71︰1和8.13︰1,这不符合正常市场规律,值得我国政府高度重视,并尽快出台有针对性的策略。     【结论】 我国蜂蜜出口具有一定竞争优势,主要体现出口量方面;蜂蜜进口快速增长,但需要正确科学引导。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To systematically evaluate the import and export of honey to, and from, China.Methods Based on time series data collected from 1981 to 2020 and a comprehensive index of imported and exported honey, the volume, unit price, and the unit price ratio of imported and exported honey, were selected as factors for measuring the international trade in honey to, and from, China.Results From 1981 to 2020, China accounted for 18.60% to 30.52% (average 22.87%) of the world's honey exports and became the largest honey exporter. However, the unit price of exported Chinese honey has been just 66.86% of the average global unit price and 40.32% of the average German unit price. The trade composite index of honey exporting countries indicates that a low unit export price can confer a competitive advantage. However, there are also potential competitors in this price range. China's honey imports, and the unit price of imported honey, are growing rapidly; the price of imported honey is now much higher than that of domestic honey. The unit price of imported honey is consequently significantly higher than that of exported honey. From 2011 to 2015, and from 2016-2020, the ratio of unit import price to unit export price was 4.71︰1 and 8.13︰1, respectively. This is contrary to normal market principles, and requires immediate rectification by the government. 【Conclusion】 Chinese honey exports have some competitive advantage, mainly reflected in the export volume. Honey imports are growing rapidly, but regulation is required to prevent the price of imported honey becoming much higher than that of domestic honey.

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