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中华蜜蜂不同体色蜂王的蜂群工蜂形态和生产性能比较及蜂种初步选育
Comparison of worker morphology and productivity in colonies with different colored queens, and results of preliminary selective breeding of Apis cerana cerana
彭成涛,郭冬生,裴亚琳,傅佳豪,胡俊彦,颜伟玉
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.071
作者单位:江西省蜜蜂生物学与饲养重点实验室,南昌 330045
中文关键词:中华蜜蜂;枣红色蜂王;黑色蜂王;人工选育;形态和生产性能
英文关键词:Apis cerana cerana; jujube red queen; black queen; artificial breeding; morphology and production performance
中文摘要:





【目的】 选育江西本地优良的中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana蜂种。【方法】 比较江西本地饲养的枣红色蜂王蜂群和黑色蜂王蜂群的生产性能,选择较优的一种作为亲本进行育王。利用人工授精技术控制处女王与雄蜂交尾,测定每代工蜂的初生重、单个采集蜂蜜囊重和38个外部形态指标并进行分析比较。【结果】 枣红色蜂王蜂群的工蜂初生重和单个采集蜂蜜囊重均显著高于黑色蜂王蜂群,但在采集力和产育力方面两者差异均不显著。选取枣红色蜂王蜂群作为亲本进行育种,后代蜂群工蜂的初生重和蜜囊重都显著高于枣红色蜂群亲本。选育蜂群的工蜂长度指标均有显著提高,颜色、翅钩数和肘脉指数均与亲本差异显著。【结论】 枣红色蜂王蜂群和黑色蜂王蜂群相比,两者在生产性能方面无显著差异。经初步选育的枣红色蜂群工蜂初生重和单个采集蜂蜜囊重均显著增加,但与亲本蜂群比较,工蜂的形态多样性并未出现明显分化。

 

 





英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To select and breed high quality Apis cerana cerana honeybees in Jiangxi Province. [Methods]  The performance of colonies with either jujube red, or black, queens in Jiangxi Province was compared, and superior queens were selected for breeding. Artificial insemination was used to control the mating between queens and drones, and the birth weight, honey sac weight of foragers and 38 external morphological indicators of each generation of worker bees, were measured and compared. [Results]  Although differences in foraging effort and fertility were not significant, the weight of newly emerged worker bees and the honey sac weights of foragers in jujube red queen colonies were significantly higher than those in black queen colonies. Jujube red queen colonies were therefor selected for breeding. The birth weight and honey sac weight of the offspring of jujube red queens were significantly higher than those of the parent colonies. The length indices of the offspring was also significantly higher, and the color, number of wing hooks and elbow pulse index were significantly different from those of their parents. [Conclusion]  There was no significant difference in honey production between colonies with either black or jujube red queens, but the emergence weight and honey sac weights of workers were significantly higher in F1 colonies of selectively bred jujube red queens. There was, however, no obvious difference in morphological diversity between F1 colonies and parent colonies.

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