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八种中国新同脉缟蝇亚属翅的几何形态学分析
Geometric morphometric analysis of the wing of eight Chinese species in the subgenus Neohomoneura (Diptera: Lauxaniidae: Homoneura)
秦仕明,张建设,冯科力,李文亮
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.086
作者单位:河南科技大学园艺与植物保护学院,洛阳 471023
中文关键词:新同脉缟蝇亚属;几何形态学;翅脉;质心大小;亲缘关系
英文关键词:Neohomoneura; geometric morphology; wing veins; centroid size; genetic relationship
中文摘要:

【目的】 采用几何形态学标点法对新同脉缟蝇亚属Neohomoneura(双翅目Diptera 缟蝇科Lauxaniidae同脉缟蝇亚科Homoneurinae同脉缟蝇属Homoneura)8种缟蝇雌雄翅的大小和翅脉形态进行差异分析,探讨8个种的亲缘关系,为新同脉缟蝇亚属近似种的分类和进化研究提供依据。【方法】 首先对新同脉缟蝇亚属8种116头标本右翅进行标点法标点,每个翅样本选取14个同源标点,并通过质心大小(Centriod size,CS)、单因素方差分析(One-way ANOVE)、普氏叠加(Procrustes superimposition)、主成分分析(Principal component analysis,PCA)、典型变量分析(Canonical variate analysis,CVA)、薄板样条分析(Thin-plate spline,TPS)、多变量方差分析(Multivariate analysis of variance,MANOVA)和聚类分析(Cluster analysis)方法进行种间和雌雄间差异以及亲缘关系分析。【结果】 8个近似种的翅大小存在显著性差异(P<0.001),仅有雾斑新同脉缟蝇Homoneura (Neohomoneura) nebulosa Sasakawa和广斑新同脉缟蝇Homoneura (Neohomoneura) grandipunctata Gao et Yang雌雄翅大小存在显著差异(P<0.05),说明翅的大小可以作为区分新同脉缟蝇亚属近似种的依据,但不能有效地区分雌雄;PCA结果表明,前2个主成分的特征值占总变异量的78.651%,能够说明不同种类之间的主要差异;CVA结果表明,通过第一和第二典型变量因子不能有效地将不同种完全分开,马氏距离结果显示,8种缟蝇的翅形具有显著差异(P<0.05),且雾斑新同脉缟蝇和广斑新同脉缟蝇翅形态差异最大;TPS结果表明,C、A2、CuA1和r-m是变异度较高的翅脉,在进化中相对不稳定;MANOVA结果显示,仅有勐仑新同脉缟蝇Homoneura (Neohomoneura) indica Malloch和广斑新同脉缟蝇的雌雄翅形状有显著差异(P<0.05);聚类分析表明,董氏新同脉缟蝇Homoneura (Neohomoneura) dongae Li et Yang和宽突新同脉缟蝇Homoneura (Neohomoneura) latisurstyla Li et Yang亲缘关系最近,雾斑新同脉缟蝇与其他7个种的亲缘关系较远。【结论】 几何形态学标点法能较好地进行新同脉缟蝇亚属种级阶元的鉴别,证明了几何形态学方法在新同脉缟蝇亚属种间分类及亲缘关系探讨应用中的可行性。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To use geometric morphometry to analyze differences in the wing size and wing vein morphology of 8 Chinese species in the subgenus Neohomoneura, quantify sexual wing dimorphism of these species and investigate their genetic relationships, thereby providing a basis for further work on the evolution and classification of this taxa. [Methods]  The landmark method was used to label the right wing veins of 116 specimens of the 8 Neohomoneura species with 14 landmarks. Differences in the wing size, vein morphology and the genetic relationships of 8 species were analyzed using centroid size (CS), one-way ANOVA, Procrustes superimposition, principal component analysis (PCA), canonical variate analysis (CVA), thin-plate spline analysis (TPS), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and cluster analysis. [Results] There were significant differences in wing size among the eight species (P<0.001). Only Homoneura (Neohomoneura) nebulosa Sasakawa, 2001 and Homoneura (Neohomoneura) grandipunctata Gao et Yang, 2006 displayed significant sexual dimorphism in wing size (P<0.05), indicating that wing size can only be used to distinguish between species, rather than sexes. The PCA results indicate that the eigenvalues of the first two principal components account for 78.651% of the total variation, which explains the main differences among samples. The CVA results indicate that the 8 species cannot be completely separated by CV1 and CV2. Mahalanobis’ distance indicates that there are significant differencein wing shape among the eight species (P<0.05), the largest being between H. (N.) nebulosa and H. (N.) grandipunctata. The TPS results indicate that C, A2, CuA1 and r-m are highly variable wing veins, indicating that they have been relatively unstable in evolution. The MANOVA results indicate significant sexual dimorphism in wing shape in both Homoneura (N.) indica Malloch, 1929 and H. (N.) grandipunctata (P<0.05). Cluster analysis indicates that Homoneura (N.) dongae Li et Yang, 2015 and Homoneura (N.) latisurstyla Li et Yang, 2015 are the most closely related species, whereas H. (N.) nebulosi is the most distantly related to the other 7 species.  [Conclusion]  Landmark methods can readily identify species of Neohomoneura, illustrating the benefits of using geometric morphology to resolving the phylogeny of this group.

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