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北京市西山试验林场昆虫资源调查
Survey of insect resources at the Xishan Forest Unit, Beijing
王 雪,郑 星,刘 然,王敏增,赵亚周
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.092
作者单位:资源昆虫高效养殖与利用全国重点实验室,中国农业科学院蜜蜂研究所,北京 100093;北京市西山试验林场,北京 100083
中文关键词:北京;昆虫;时空分布;分类鉴定;多样性分析
英文关键词:Beijing; insects; spatial and temporal distribution; taxonomic identification; diversity analysis
中文摘要:

【目的】 通过建立长期的昆虫资源监测样点,对北京地区昆虫资源现状和时空分布规律进行评价,为制定有益昆虫的保护策略和有害昆虫的防治方法提供必要基础数据。【方法】 2020年和2021年的3-10月,在西山试验林场内建立2个不同海拔的监测样点,利用马氏网集虫法进行长期昆虫监测,对采集到的昆虫进行分类鉴定和多样性分析,实现林场内昆虫群落特征和时空动态的综合评价。【结果】 共采集昆虫11 619头,隶属9目68科139种。其中,双翅目昆虫数量最多,占昆虫总数的50.74%,涉及19科48种。从科的角度分析,蝇、蛾和蜂的数量最多;采集到的少数类群昆虫,多属于鳞翅目和半翅目。山顶组的昆虫种类和数量显著高于山腰组,2年监测期内各监测样点的昆虫种类和数量总体保持稳定,不存在显著差异;但夏季昆虫的数量和种类显著多于春、秋季,说明昆虫资源的分布与海拔和季节相关性较强。【结论】 连续2年的昆虫调查数据初步揭示北京西山林场内昆虫资源的种类和数量丰富,其分布规律与海拔和季节有较强的相关性。为实时掌握当地昆虫的种群动态变化,及有针对性地提出相关保护或防治方案提供数据支持。



英文摘要:
[Objectives]  To evaluate the current status and spatiotemporal distribution patterns of insect resources in Beijing through the establishment of long-term monitoring sites, and thereby provide the necessary baseline data for the conservation of beneficial insects and the control of insect pests. [Methods]  Two monitoring sites at different altitudes were established in the Xishan Experimental Forestry Range in 2020 and 2021, where long-term insect monitoring was carried out from March to October of these years using the Malaise net collection method. [Results]  A total of 11 619 insects were collected, which were classified into 139 species, 68 families and 9 orders. The Diptera were the most common order, accounting for 50.74% of all specimens captured; 48 species and 19 families. In terms of families, flies, moths and bees were the most abundant. The least common families belonged to the Lepidoptera and Hemiptera. Significantly more individual insects and species were captured at the hilltop sampling site than at the hillside site, and the species and numbers of insects captured at each monitoring site remained generally stable over the 2-year monitoring period. However, significantly more individual insects and species were captured in summer than in spring and autumn, indicating that insect abundance was strongly correlated with both altitude and season. [Conclusion]  Survey data collected over two consecutive years indicates that insects are both abundant and diverse at the Beijing Xishan Forestry Unit, and that their distribution is strongly correlated with altitude and season. These data reveal the population dynamics of local insects in real time and thereby provide essential baseline information for the protection, or control, of specific species.

 

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