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中草药精油对蜜蜂狄斯瓦螨的熏杀效果
Effectiveness of herbal essential oils as fumigants tocontrol Varroa destructor in laboratory assays
苏晓玲,郑火青,费中华,胡福良**
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DOI:
作者单位:浙江大学动物科学学院杭州310058
中文关键词:蜜蜂,狄斯瓦螨,中草药精油,杀螨活性
英文关键词:honeybee,Varroa destructor,herbal essential oils,acaricidal activity
中文摘要:           在实验室条件下测定10 种中草药精油对蜜蜂狄斯瓦螨Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman 的熏蒸效
果,通过测定中草药精油对蜜蜂和螨的毒性,筛选出具有杀螨活性而对蜜蜂较安全的中草药精油。结果表明:中
草药精油对蜜蜂都有一定的毒害;而在对蜜蜂无毒性的剂量下,48 h 时茴香油、丁香油、肉桂油分别能引起
92. 5% 、54% 和12% 的螨死亡,显著高于对照组(P < 0. 05) ;根据初步筛选结果,选择茴香油和丁香油进行进一步毒力测定,结果表明48 h 时茴香油对螨的LD50为0. 949 μL,蜜蜂的LD50为4. 033 μL;丁香油对螨的LD50为0. 795μL,蜜蜂的LD50为1. 965 μL。茴香油在48 h 时有着较高的选择比(蜜蜂的LD50 /螨的LD50 = 4. 250) ;GC-MS 鉴定茴香油最主要成分是茴香脑(占总成分的88. 72% ),丁香油的主要成分是丁香酚(68. 28% )和石竹烯(20. 79% )。可见,茴香油和丁香油在控制狄斯瓦螨的应用上具有很大潜力。
英文摘要:      The effects of using herbal essential oils as fumigants to control Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman,and    the toxicity of these compounds to honeybees,were assayed under laboratory conditions. The results showed that all the  oils tested were,to some extent,toxic to honeybees but anise oil,clove oil and cinnamon oil caused 92. 5% ,54% and   12% mite mortality respectively with no toxicity to bees after 48 h. There were significant differences in toxicity between the three oils and the control (P < 0. 05) . The acute toxicity of anise oil and clove oil to mites was further evaluated by  estimating LD50 values. The LD50 values of anise oil for V. destructor and A. mellifera were 0. 949 μL and 4. 033 μL, respectively,and those of clove oil were 0. 795 μL and 1. 965 μL,respectively. Anise oil had a higher selective ratio after
48h ( LD50 to honeybees /LD50 to mites = 4. 250) . The chemical composition of anise oil and clove oil were analyzed and  identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) . The most abundant compound in anise oil was ( E) - anethole (88. 72% ) . The main components of clove oil were Eugenol (68. 28% ) and Caryophyllene (20. 79% ) . These  results show that anise oil and clove oil are promising acaricides that could be used for controlling Varroa mites in  beehives.
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