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甜菜夜蛾防控技术研究与示范
Progress in research on prevention and control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua in China
司升云 周利琳 王少丽 江幸福 许再福 等
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DOI:
作者单位:1 武汉市蔬菜科学研究所武汉430065; 2 中国农业科学院蔬菜花卉研究所北京100081;3 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所北京100193; 4 华南农业大学资源环境学院广州510642;5 山东农业大学植物保护学院泰安271018; 6 上海市农业科学院生态环境保护研究所上海201106;7 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院武汉430070; 8 湖南省植物保护研究所长沙410125
中文关键词:甜菜夜蛾, 发生, 越冬, 迁飞, 抗药性, 生物防治, 综合防治, 示范
英文关键词:Spodoptera exigua, occurrence, overwintering, migration, resistance, biological control, integrated demonstration
中文摘要:

       针对当前我国蔬菜生产中甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)高抗药性、猖獗为害、防控困难的现状,项目组对甜菜夜蛾的发生规律、越冬与迁飞、抗药性、生物防治与综合防控等进行了系统的研究。明确了甜菜夜蛾在我国各地的发生规律及发生动态,从南到北发生时间呈楔形,而发生量总体东高西低,从南到北呈中部高南北低的马鞍形。阐述了甜菜夜蛾“无卵子发生飞行拮抗”的迁飞特性,提出了接力棒式季节性南北往返迁飞模式,初步阐明了甜菜夜蛾在我国东部地区的迁飞路线与迁飞时间。提出并认证了甜菜夜蛾在我国的越冬区域。明确了全国各主要发生区甜菜夜蛾对10种杀虫剂的抗药性水平,探明了甜菜夜蛾对茚虫威、甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐的抗性风险、交互抗性、种群适合度、抗性遗传规律和抗性机理,提出了抗药性治理措施。分别在海南、湖南、湖北、上海、天津等地进行了甜菜夜蛾田间药效试验,筛选出环境友好型高效杀虫剂7种。掌握了马尼拉陡胸茧蜂、夜蛾黑卵蜂和淡足侧沟茧蜂人工大量繁殖技术,改进了甜菜夜蛾核型多角体病毒生产工艺,解决了寄生蜂和病毒规模化生产及田间释放关键技术,达到规模化生产的要求。改进优化了甜菜夜蛾性引诱剂配方、研发出新型诱捕装置,并投入生产应用。集成出4套农业生产轻简化实用技术,华南、华中、华北、华东地区根据当地发生特点制定了4套防控方案。在全国甜菜夜蛾主要发生区建立试验基地16个,核心示范基地29个,年示范面积总计约3 800 hm2,取得显著的经济、社会和生态效益。

英文摘要:

The beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a rampant pest in intensive vegetable cultivation in China, ith high resistance to control methods. The occurrence, overwintering, migration, resistance, biological control and integrated pest management (IPM) of this species were systematically studied.The results indicate that the period of occurrence forms a wedge shape from south to north. The population sizes attained form a saddleshape, with higher populations in central China and lower populations in the south and north.We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesisflight syndrome. We showed that the migration of BAW is of relaytype and moves seasonally from north to south and we made a preliminary clarification of the route and timing of BAW in East China.The overwintering areas of BAW were predicted and identified nationally.We clarified levels of resistance to ten insecticides in major occurrence areas and measured resistance risk, crossresistance, population fitness, resistance inheritance, resistance mechanisms and resistance management of BAW to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate.The effectiveness of seven efficient and environmentally friendly pesticides were screened in field trials in Hainan, Hunan, Hubei, Shanghai and Tianjin, achieving significant results.We successfully developed artificial propagation techniques for Snellenius manilae (Ashmead), Telenomus remus Nixon and Microplitis pallidipes Szépligeti, and improved the production process for S. exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV), solving key technological problems to achieve the largescale production and field emancipation of these parasitoids and SeNPV. The formula of a sex attractant for BAW has been optimized and a new trapping device invented and these are now available on the market.We integrated four simple and practical technologies and developed prevention and control programs to suit the different characteristics of each of South, North, Central and East China.During project implementation, sixteen test and twentynine core model bases have been established in areas of major occurrence and about 3 800 hm2per year treated for demonstration. Obvious economic, ecological and social benefits have followed.

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