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农作物栽培制度与害虫发生程度的关系
Relationship between cropping regimes and pest insect abundance
陈 芳1** 王小艺2*** 周 进1 段祥坤1 罗燕娜1
点击:1130次 下载:18次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2018.037
作者单位:1. 新疆生产建设兵团第六师农业科学研究所,五家渠 831300; 2. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林保护学重点实验室,北京 100091
中文关键词:种植模式,虫害动态,生态调控,天敌保育
英文关键词:Sogatella furcifera, migration dynamics, mesoscale source areas, trajectory analysis
中文摘要:

【目的】 为了解单一作物种植模式、间作模式、以及农田防护林带对作物病虫害发生程度的影响及原因。【方法】 本研究分别在夏秋两个季节调查了六师垦区内西部、中部和东部3个农场、4种作物、4种生境内的害虫和天敌种类及其丰富度情况。【结果】 秋季害虫和天敌的种类和数量均显著高于夏季,秋季害虫和天敌种群密度分别是夏季的4.7倍和2.7倍。不同农场害虫种类和数量存在显著差异,以芳草湖农场害虫平均虫口数量最高,是奇台农场的2.8倍。不同作物地害虫种类存在明显不同,但虫口数量无显著差异。间作地和林带明显比单作和地边害虫种类多,但单作地害虫数量是间作地的2.1倍。不同的调查地点、作物类别和生境条件下天敌的种类和数量均存在显著差异,以奇台农场天敌数量最高,是共青团农场的2.9倍。林带内的天敌数量最丰富,是单作地的7.5倍,靠近地边的作物植株上天敌数量也较单一种植作物上高出3.1倍,间作地天敌数量是单作地的1.6倍。六师垦区内共发现8种捕食性瓢虫,其中以多异瓢虫 Adonia variegata (Goeze)丰富度最高,占31.92%以上;其次为深点食螨瓢虫,约占26.54%。因此多异瓢虫 Adonia variegata (Goeze)是六师垦区内最有保护利用前景的捕食性天敌,值得进一步开发利用。不同生境条件下节肢动物多样性指数存在较大差异,林带内生物多样性指数最高,其次为间作地,单作田最低。【结论】 通过调查初步掌握了六师垦区内主要农作物虫害类别及其种群动态,明确了不同季节作物害虫的种类变化和消长规律,研究结果为垦区内生物灾害的有效治理和作物合理种植及其管理模式提供了科学的决策建议。

英文摘要:

 [Objectives]  To understand the effects of cropping regimes on pest insect abundance, pest species diversity and population dynamics was measured and compared in monocultures, mixed crops and crops with farmland shelterbelts, in the western, central, and eastern areas of the Sixth Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (6th Division, XPCC) in summer and autumn. [Methods]  The number of pest species and the diversity of pests and natural enemies in the four cropping regimes were surveyed. [Results]  Species diversity and numbers of pests and natural enemies in autumn were significantly higher (4.7 and 2.7 times, respectively) than those in summer. There were significant differences in the number and types of insect pests on different farms. The highest average number of insect pests was found in Fangcaohu farm, which was 2.8 times that found in Qitai Farm. There were significant differences in the species of pests found on different crops, but no significant difference in their population densities. Pest species diversity was significantly higher in intercropped fields and those with shelterbelts than in monocultures and field edges, but pest densities in monocultures and field edges were 2.1 times those in intercropped fields. The number of natural enemies varied greatly among different survey sites, crop types and habitats. Qitai farm had the highest number; 2.9 times higher than Gongqingtuan farm. Natural enemies were most abundant in fields with shelterbelts where they were 7.5 times higher than in monocultures. The number of natural enemies on the plants near field edges was 3.1 times higher than in monocultures. A total of 8 species of predatory ladybird beetles were found in the study area, of which Adonia variegata (Goeze) was the most abundant (31.92%), followed by the Stethorus punctillum (Weise), (26.54%). A. variegata is therefore the most promising potential biological control. The biodiversity index of arthropods in different habitats was varied. Biodiversity was the highest in shelterbelts, followed by intercropped fields and lowest in monocultures. [Conclusion]  The species diversity and population dynamics of insect pests and their natural enemies differed in different cropping regimes. These findings provide a scientific basis for the effective control of crop pests and rational planting and management regimes.

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