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壁蜂授粉存在的问题与展望
Issues and prospects of mason bee pollination application
石晓宇,邹怡,罗阿蓉,牛泽清,朱朝东
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.124
作者单位:中国科学院动物研究所,动物进化与系统学院重点实验室,北京 100101
中文关键词:壁蜂;农作物授粉;罩笼实验;农业景观;蜜蜂授粉
英文关键词:mason bee; crop pollination; cage experiment; agricultural landscape; honeybee pollination
中文摘要:壁蜂Osmia spp.的授粉服务功能在全球农作物生产中发挥着重要的作用,但我们对其授粉效率和应用过程中的影响因素的基础研究仍然十分有限。农业景观会影响壁蜂授粉的表现。在不同的农业景观内,当地与目标作物同时开花的野生植物、当地传粉昆虫群落、捕食者、拟寄生者和病原体可以增强/削弱壁蜂的授粉表现及壁蜂蜂茧的回收。我们需要评估从壁蜂引入到对当地农业生态系统的潜在影响。引入的壁蜂有可能与本土野生蜂物种竞争筑巢栖息地、筑巢材料和食物,并可能通过帮助入侵植物授粉来促进其扩散。本文综述了利用壁蜂进行授粉存在的潜在问题,并基于四个方面讨论壁蜂应用成本与效益:1)将农业景观纳入壁蜂授粉应用的评估;2)评估壁蜂对当地生态系统的潜在影响;3)评估壁蜂的授粉价值;     4)对比壁蜂与蜜蜂的授粉效果,旨在指导农民在不同的农业景观内使用壁蜂进行授粉。
英文摘要:Mason bees (Osmia spp.) have been used to pollinate some crops worldwide but information on the factors affecting their efficiency remains limited. This paper reviews some commonly encountered problems when using mason bees as pollinators and provide suggestions for using mason bees as pollinators in different agricultural landscapes. A variety of factors can affect the performance of mason bees as pollinators and the recovery of bee cocoons, including plants flowering at the same time as the target crop, local pollinator communities, predators, parasitoids and pathogens. The potential impact of introducing mason bees into local agroecosystems should be evaluated before they are introduced. Introduced mason bees may compete with native wild bee species for habitats, nesting materials and food resources, and may also pollinate invasive plants. The following points should be considered before using mason bees as pollinators: 1. Is the agricultural landscape suitable for mason bees? 2. What are the potential adverse impacts of mason bees on local ecosystems? 3. What is the likely contribution of mason bees to crop yield? 4. How would pollination by mason bees compare to that by honey bees? Overall, we encourage careful assessment of these points to ensure that mason bees are only deployed as pollinators in the appropriate ecological conditions.
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