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中国油茶主产区传粉昆虫群落多样性分析
Pollinator communities diversity in the main Camellia oleifera producing areas of China
张欢,刘文平,魏玮,赵凯旋,陆欢欢,李红英,周泽扬,牛泽清,朱朝东,黄敦元
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.125
作者单位:农业农村部长江上游传粉昆虫资源保护与利用重点实验室(部省共建),重庆师范大学生命科学学院,重庆 401331
中文关键词:油茶;传粉昆虫;优势类群;多样性
英文关键词:Camellia oleifera; pollinators; dominant species; diversity
中文摘要:【目的】 油茶是我国特有的传统木本食用油料植物,具有较高的食用和药用价值,自花授粉结实率低,主要依靠传粉昆虫授粉。为综合了解我国油茶花期传粉昆虫种类,以及不同地区传粉昆虫群落差异,以期为油茶传粉昆虫的保护与利用提供本底资料。【方法】 于2015-2020年,采用定时扫网法对全国16个省份80个样地进行传粉昆虫采集与鉴定,采用物种均匀度、优势度及丰富度等指数对传粉昆虫进行多样性分析。【结果】 共采集到油茶传粉昆虫4 379只,分别隶属于6目26科53属 90种,主要以膜翅目和双翅目为主。其中,地蜂科(Andrenidae)、蜜蜂科(Apidae)、胡蜂科(Vespidae)、分舌蜂科(Colletidae)和食蚜蝇科(Syrphidae)分别占传粉昆虫总数的28.48%、24.27%、16.78%、10.78%和10.12%。油茶传粉昆虫物种数(S)、个体数(N)、Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数(H')和Berger-Parker优势度指数(D)最高的样地均是湖南省永州市林业科学研究所油茶基地,最低的是广西壮族自治区来宾市维都林场油茶基地;丰富度指数(Chao1)最高是福建南平市武夷山市五夫镇样地,最低的是广西壮族自治区来宾市维都林场油茶基地;Pielou 均匀度指数(J')最高的是湖南省永州市林业科学研究所油茶基地,而较低的是云南省文山州广南县莲城镇、江西省吉安市峡江县戈坪乡和福建省福州市闽侯县荆溪镇样地。福建三明市沙县高砂镇与安徽黄山市歙县徽城镇样地相似性系数最高(CS = 0.97),而江西省新余市渝水区水北镇与福建省福州市晋安区岭头山乡、陕西省汉中市南郑区新集镇样地的相似性系数均最低(CS = 0.07)。【结论】 油茶传粉昆虫优势类群中的地蜂科和分舌蜂科物种均属土壤筑巢野生蜜蜂,成虫活动期与油茶花期高度吻合,是油茶专性传粉者,对解除油茶花粉资源限制,提高油茶产量起到重要的作用。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To investigate the main of pollinators of Camellia oleifera, a woody plant endemic to China that has a high edible oil content and medicinal value, differences in pollinator communities in different regions, and provide information useful for the conservation and utilization of pollinators. [Methods]  Pollinators of C. oleifera were collected and identified at 80 sample sites in 16 provinces using the timed sweep-net method between 2015 and 2020. Pollinator diversity was analyzed using indices of species evenness, dominance and richness. [Results]  A total of 4 379 pollinators were collected and classified into 6 orders, 26 families, 53 genera and 90 species. The main orders were the Hymenoptera and Diptera. Among these, the Andrenidae, Apidae, Vespidae, Colletidae and Syrphidae comprised 28.48%, 24.27%, 16.78%, 10.78%, and 10.12% of the total number of pollinators, respectively. The Yongzhou forestry research institute in Hunan had the highest number of species (S), number of individuals (N), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), and Berger-Parker dominance index (D), of pollinators, whereas the Weidu forestry farm in Laibin city Guangxi had the lowest of these indices. Wufu town, Wuyishan city in Nanping city, Fujian had the highest richness correlation index (Chao1), whereas the Weidu forest farm had the lowest. The Yongzhou forestry science research institute had the highest Pielou evenness index (J′) whereas Liancheng town, Guangnan county, Wenshan city, Yunnan, Geping town, Xiajiang county, Jian city in Jiangxi, and Jingxi town, Minhou county, Fuzhou city, Fujian, had the lowest. A community similarity analysis showed that Gaosha town, Shaxian county, Sanming city in Fujian, and Huicheng town, Shexian county, Huangshan city, Anhui, had the highest similarity coefficient (CS =0.97), whereas Shuibei town, Yushui county, Xinyu city in Jiangxi, and Lingtoushan town, Jinan county, Fuzhou city, Fujian and Xinji town, Nanzheng county Hanzhong city in Shaanxi, had the lowest (CS=0.07). [Conclusion]  Members of the Andrenidae and Colletidae families, soil-nesting wild bees, are the dominant pollinators of C. oleifera. The activity periods of these bees coincide with the flowering period of C. oleifera and they are important pollinators of this plant.
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