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皖南地区农林交错带传粉蜂类多样性及分布格局
Diversity and distribution of pollinator wasps and bees in the southern Anhui agroforestry ecotone
朱斌,姜丽君,谢婷婷,黄敦元,黄文翔,郝家胜,朱朝东
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.126
作者单位:安徽师范大学生命科学学院,芜湖 241000
中文关键词:传粉蜂类;农林交错带;野生植物;观赏植物;传粉生态系统
英文关键词:pollinator wasps and bees; agroforestry ecotone; wild plants; ornamental plants; pollination ecosystem
中文摘要:【目的】 探讨皖南地区农林交错带传粉蜂类的物种多样性和群落结构与开花植物的关系。【方法】 选取安庆市宜秀区杨屋村、宣城市泾县马头村、池州市青阳县三增村和池州市石台县焦曹村4个皖南地区典型的农林交错带,2019年7月至2021年4月,采用人工扫网法收集开花植物上的传粉蜂类。分析比较了不同植物类型上传粉蜂类的物种多样性和群落结构差异。【结果】 本研究共采集4 484头传粉蜂类,隶属于11科53属118种,被访植物有农作物、经济作物、观赏植物和野生植物4种类型。蜜蜂科的种类、数量以及所访问植物的种类都极显著高于其他科的蜂类(P < 0.01)。蜜蜂总科-植物传粉网络的灭绝曲线系数高于胡蜂总科-植物传粉网络。野生植物上传粉蜂的种类和数量均极显著高于其他的类型的植物(P < 0.01)。观赏植物的种类与其所吸引传粉蜂类的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Marglaf丰富度指数均极显著相关(P < 0.01),但在其他类型植物上的相关性不显著。蜂类-观赏植物传粉网络的生态位重叠参数最低,蜂类物种对花粉资源竞争压力小。【结论】 夏季的传粉蜂类多样性显著高于春秋两季。蜜蜂科在农林传粉生态系统中占主要地位,对维持农林交错带传粉网络的稳定性尤为重要。野生植物能吸引更多种类和数量的野生蜂类,是农林授粉生态系统中最重要的景观类型之一。观赏植物的高丰富度有助于维持传粉蜂类的多样性,然而,并非所有观赏植物都能吸引蜂类传粉。本研究可为保护农林交错带中野生蜂类的栖息地,进而保护当地的传粉生态系统及相关政策的制定提供理论参考。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To investigate the relationship between pollinator wasps and bees, species diversity and flowering plants, in the agroforestry ecotone of southern Anhui. [Methods]  Four typical villages in the agroforestry ecotone of southern Anhui: Yangwu village, Yixiu district, Anqing; Matou village, Jing county Xuancheng; Sanzeng village, Qingyang county, Chizhou and Jiaocao village, Shitai county, Chizhou, were selected as study sites. Pollinator wasps and bees were collected from flowering plants with manual sweep nets from July 2019 to April 2021. The community structure and species diversity of pollinator wasps and bees on different plant species was then analyzed and compared. [Results]  A total of 4 484 individual wasps and bees were collected, which could be assigned to 118 species, 53 genera and 11 families. These wasp and bee species visited four types of flowering plants; crops, cash crops, ornamental plants and wild plants. Significantly (P < 0.01) more species and individuals belonged to the Apidae than to other families, and members of this family also visited significantly more plants than other families. The extinction slope coefficient of the Apoidea-plant bipartite network was higher than that of the Vespoidea-plant bipartite network. Significantly more species and individual wasps and bees visited wild plants than other plants (P < 0.01). Ornamental plant species were significant correlated with both the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the Marglaf richness index (P < 0.01) of wasps and bees. No such correlation was found for other types of plants. The wasp and bee-ornamental plant bipartite network had the lowest niche overlap coefficient. Wasp and bee species had little competition pressure for pollen resources. [Conclusion]  Pollinator diversity in the agroforestry ecotone of southern Anhui is significantly higher in summer than in spring or autumn. The Apidae play a major role in the pollination of agroforestry ecosystems and are particularly important for maintaining the stability of pollination networks in the agroforestry ecotone. Wild plants attract both more species and individuals of wild bees and consequently are an important component of the agroforestry ecosystem. High ornamental plant diversity helps maintain pollinator diversity. However, not all ornamentals attract bees. This study provides fundamental information for protecting the habitat of wild wasps and bees, thereby promoting pollination in the agroforestry ecotone.
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