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窄切叶蜂筑巢生物学特性研究
Nesting characteristics of Megachile rixator (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
郭鹏飞,郭士琨,王明强,李逸,陈婧婷,杨娟娟,罗阿蓉,朱朝东
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.128
作者单位:中国科学院动物研究所,动物进化与系统学(院)重点实验室,北京 100101
中文关键词:切叶蜂;独栖性蜜蜂;亚热带森林;人工巢管;性比
英文关键词:leaf-cutter bee; solitary bee; subtropical forest; trap-nest; sex ratio
中文摘要:【目的】 研究窄切叶蜂Megachile rixator的筑巢生物学特性,为开展该物种的保护、人工管理和驯化提供数据支撑。【方法】 2015年8月至2020年7月,在江西省德兴市新岗山镇的BEF-China实验样地设置了88个采样点,使用了标准化的人工巢管诱集窄切叶蜂筑巢,并观察其生物学特性。【结果】 试验期间共采集到窄切叶蜂筑巢巢管199根,巢室866个,其中羽化347头成虫,未羽化死亡率占60%;后代雌性/雄性数量比例为0.57;雌性每年5-11月使用植物叶片建造巢室,进行筑巢活动;一头雌蜂平均每次建造巢室(3.75±2.24)个;巢口平均直径(10.00±2.37)mm,偏向于在巢管内径为11-13 mm的范围内筑巢;当年9月以后所产后代滞育,以预蛹期越冬;后代性比(雌性数量/雄性数量)在5月最高,之后逐月递减,但在11月又有所增加;在巢管内径5-7 mm的范转内后代性比最低,且随巢口内径增加而升高,但在内径13-15 mm范围内又下降。【结论】 窄切叶蜂是典型的独栖性切叶蜂,每年从春末到秋末持续发生筑巢活动,使用植物叶片建造巢室,呈多化性;每次筑巢会产下多个后代,死亡率较高;后代性比偏向雄性;可在当年9-11月使用较粗内径的巢管收集雌性窄切叶蜂。本研究结果为窄切叶蜂授粉的应用提供参考。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To investigate the nesting biology of Megachile rixator in order to provide a theoretical basis for the protection, artificial management and domestication of this pollinating bee species. [Methods]  A total of 88 sample plots were established at the BEF-China experimental site in Xingangshan town, Dexing city, Jiangxi province, China between August 2015 and July 2020. Standardized trap-nests were used to collect M. rixator whose biological characteristics were then recorded and analyzed. [Results]  A total of 866 nests were recorded, 347 of which were successful with an overall mortality rate of 60%. The ratio of female to male offspring was 0.57. Females built nests using plant leaves from May to November, building an average of (3.75 ± 2.24) nests each time. The average diameter of nests was (10.00 ± 2.37) mm, and nests tended to be within the range of 11-13 mm. Diapause occurred after September and individuals overwintered in the pre-pupal stage. The sex ratio of offspring peaked in May after which it decreased each month until increasing again in November. The sex ratio of offspring was lowest in nests with a diameter of 5-7 mm, was higher in nests of moderate diameter, and lower in nests with a diameter of 13-15 mm. [Conclusion]  M. rixator is a typical solitary, leafcutter bee species that uses plant leaves to build nests. It is, however, polymorphic. Each nest produces multiple offspring and has a high mortality rate. Nesting takes place continuously from late spring to late fall each year. The sex ratio of offspring tends to be male biased. Female M. rixator can be collected from September to November using trap nests with a thicker inner diameter.
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