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我国壁蜂传粉的作物种类与生态效益
The ecological benefits of mason bee pollination in China
欧阳芳,门兴元,肖治术
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.129
作者单位:中国科学院动物研究所,农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室,北京 100101
中文关键词:壁蜂传粉;生态效益;作物类型;作物产量;作物品质
英文关键词:mason bee pollination; ecological benefit; crop type; crop yield; crop quality
中文摘要:【目的】 过去30年来,中国及全球农业对传粉昆虫的依赖度越来越高,但社会性驯养蜜蜂数量(如蜜蜂和熊蜂等)及传粉服务能力远远不足。中国超过70%的主要农作物在果实和种子生产过程中非常依赖蜂类等昆虫的传粉功能。其中,蜜蜂总科中的壁蜂Osmia spp.是重要的独栖性传粉昆虫,可通过人工繁育来为作物授粉,以提高作物的产量和质量。然而,目前壁蜂在我国农作物生产的应用研究状况如何,有待系统的梳理总结。【方法】 结合定性和定量的文献调研方法分析我国壁蜂对农作物传粉的研究进展。【结果】 文献分析结果表明目前我国作物传粉应用较多的主要壁蜂物种有凹唇壁蜂O. excavata、角额壁蜂O. cornifrons、紫壁蜂等O. jacoti等;壁蜂传粉的主要作物类型为水果作物、蔬菜、纤维作物和油料作物等;壁蜂传粉在提高作物坐果率和产量、改善品质、减少生理落果和提高繁育种子质量等方面产生了明显的生态效益和功效作用。【结论】 明确壁蜂传粉的作物类型及其生态效益的定量评估指标,为全国范围内加快推广应用壁蜂传粉和满足农作物生产对昆虫传粉的需求提供科学依据。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  Over the past 30 years, agricultural production in China and around the world has become increasingly dependent on pollinators, but there are insufficient socially domesticated bees (such as honeybees and bumblebees) to provide the required pollination services. About 70% of the major crops in China rely heavily on insect pollinators for fruit and seed production. The mason bee (Osmia) in the super family Apoidae is an important solitary pollinator, which, through artificial breeding, can improve crop yield and quality. However, there is currently no systematic summary of the benefits of mason bees to crop production in China. [Methods]  Qualitative and quantitative literature searches were combined to obtain information on the effectiveness of using mason bees as crop pollinators in China. [Results]  Currently, the major mason bee species used for crop pollination mainly include O. cornifrons, O. excavata and O. jacoti. Crops pollinated by mason bees include fruits, vegetables, fibre crops and oil crops. Pollination by Mason bees has significant ecological benefits and can improve fruit size, yield and quality, reduce physiological fruit drop, and improve the quantity and quality of seed crops. [Conclusion]  This paper provides a summary of the crops pollinated by mason bees in China and a quantitative evaluation of the ecological benefits of using Mason bees for pollination. This information should promote the use of Mason bees as pollinators and thereby help rectify the nationwide shortage of insect pollinators.
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