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倒春寒天气蜜蜂授粉对油用牡丹产量和品质的影响
Effects of bee pollination on yield and quality of oil tree peony in the extreme weather spring freeze
张凯月,王翔,鲍俊毅,王浩,贺春玲,侯小改
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.130
作者单位:河南科技大学农学院,牡丹学院,洛阳 471000
中文关键词:倒春寒;油用牡丹;西方蜜蜂;地熊蜂;授粉;产量
英文关键词:spring freeze; oil tree peony; Apis mellifera; Bombus terrestris; pollination; yield
中文摘要:【目的】 倒春寒是典型的气候灾害现象,严重影响农作物的生长发育过程和产量。蜜蜂授粉能显著提高农作物的产量、品质和经济价值。本研究以油用牡丹‘凤丹’为研究对象,旨在明确蜜蜂授粉能否缓解倒春寒天气对其作物产量和品质的影响,为有效利用蜜蜂资源奠定基础。【方法】 2017-2020年,在油用牡丹基地的传粉网室内分别放置西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera和地熊蜂Bombus terrestris,测定不同年份以及同一年份不同授粉方式下油用牡丹的结实、产量和品质;同时,重点比较分析在倒春寒天气影响下,西方蜜蜂和地熊蜂授粉对油用牡丹产量和品质的影响。【结果】 2018年河南洛阳地区发生了中度倒春寒天气灾害,大田油用牡丹雄蕊的冻害率达到70.20%,单株产量平均为(4.85±0.81)g,相比较于2017、2019和2020年显著减产了1 094.86%、1 401.24%和893.60%(P < 0.01);连续4年的研究结果表明,与自然对照相比,西方蜜蜂和地熊蜂授粉可使油用牡丹的单株产量分别提高85.43%-499.38%和35.86%-357.94%(P < 0.01),且西方蜜蜂的授粉效果优于地熊蜂;2018年倒春寒天气下,西方蜜蜂授粉使油用牡丹的产量(单株产量)增加499.38%(P < 0.01),地熊蜂授粉增加了203.71%(P < 0.01);西方蜜蜂和地熊蜂授粉对油用牡丹的出油率和总不饱和脂肪酸含量无显著差异(P > 0.05);西方蜜蜂授粉使油用牡丹的减产率降低了407.18%,地熊蜂授粉使减产率降低了133.04%。【结论】 倒春寒天气灾害导致油用牡丹减产严重,但不影响来年油用牡丹的生产力;西方蜜蜂和地熊蜂可以显著缓解倒春寒天气对油用牡丹的减产作用,且西方蜜蜂的授粉效果优于地熊蜂。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  Spring freeze is a typical climate disaster, which will seriously affect the growth and yield of agricultural and forestry crops. Bee pollination can significantly improve the yield, quality and economic value of crops. This study took the oil tree peony ‘Fengdan’ as the research object, and aimed to determine whether bee pollination could alleviate the impact of spring freeze on crop yield and quality, and lay a foundation for the effective use of bee resources. [Methods]  From 2017 to 2020, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris were placed in the pollination net room of the oil tree peony base to determine the fruit, yield and quality in different years and different pollination methods in the same year. At the same time, under the influence of the spring freeze, the effect of pollination by A. mellifera and B. terrestris on the yield and quality of oil tree peonies was focused on comparative analysis. [Results]  In 2018, the freezing injury rate of stamens in the oil tree peony field reached 70.20% and the per plant yield was (4.85±0.81)g, which significantly reduced by 1 094.86%, 1 401.24% and 893.60%, respectively (P < 0.01). The results over 4 consecutive years show that A. mellifera and B. terrestris significantly increase the per plant yield of oil tree peonies by 85.43%-499.38% and 35.86%-357.94%, respectively (P < 0.01), and that A. mellifera increases the yield more than B. terrestris. In 2018, A. mellifera pollination significantly alleviated the reduction in yield per plant by 499.38% (P < 0.01), whereas pollination by B. terrestris significantly alleviated it by 203.71% (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the oil yield, or total unsaturated fatty acid content, of tree peonies pollinated by either A. mellifera or B. terrestris (P < 0.05). A. mellifera pollination reduced the yield reduction rate of oil tree peonies by 407.18%, whereas pollination by B. terrestris reduced the yield reduction rate by 133.04%. [Conclusion]  Spring freeze significantly reduced the yield of oil tree peonies, but did not affect their productivity the following year. Pollination by either A. mellifera or B. terrestris can significantly alleviate the adverse impact of a spring freeze on oil tree peony yields, the former more so than the latter.
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