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网室内不同结构蜂群的消长及对大豆不育系授粉效果的影响
Population dynamics of queen-right, queen-less and virgin queen, honey bee colonies and their relative effectiveness as pollinators of sterile soybeans in a net room
刘强,姚慧敏,申晋山,武文卿,宋怀磊,雷佳,马卫华,姜玉锁,卜莉
点击:361次 下载:20次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.131
作者单位:延安市养蜂试验站,延安 716000
中文关键词:意大利蜜蜂;处女王;无王;大豆不育系;网室制种
英文关键词:Apis mellifera ligustica; virgin queen; queenless; soybean sterile line; net room
中文摘要:【目的】 为提高大豆不育系产量和节约授粉成本,需要选择合适结构的授粉蜂群。【方法】 本研究采用计数法和称重法研究了网室内正常组(交尾王)、无王组和处女王组的消长,花粉消耗及授粉后大豆不育系产量相关性状,利用摄像的方法监测了3种结构蜂群的出勤蜂频次。【结果】 3种结构蜂群的消长结果显示,处女王组蜂数减少比例最高(58.07%),显著高于正常组(30.83%)和无王组(38.80%)(P<0.05);正常组封盖子减少比例为43.40%,极显著低与无王组和处女王组(P<0.01);正常组的卵减少比例为54.2%,低于无王组(100%)和处女王组(90.99%),正常组与无王组有显著差异(P<0.05)。3种结构蜂群的出勤活跃时间均集中在9:00-13:00;正常组蜜蜂出勤有两个高峰,无王组和处女王组有1个高峰;出勤蜂日频次由多到少依次为正常组(38只)、处女王组(31只)和无王组(24只),3组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05)。3种结构蜂群的花粉消耗率无显著差异(P>0.05)。大豆不育系授粉效果显示,正常组和无王组授粉后大豆株产量均极显著高于处女王组(P<0.01);正常组的荚数和粒数极显著高于无王组和处女王组(P<0.01)。【结论】 网室大豆不育系授粉,正常蜂群组和无王组授粉效果优于处女王组;使用无王组和处女王组可以减少成本。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To investigate the effect of the queen status of honey bee colonies on their ability to pollinate sterile soybeans, and thereby find ways to increase soybean yield and reduce pollination costs. [Methods]  The population dynamics and pollen consumption of queenright (mated queen) and queen-less colonies, and those with a virgin queen, and sterile soybean yield after pollination in a net room, were investigated by counting and weighing. The frequency of bees entering and leaving hives in each of the three kinds of colonies was monitored with a camera. [Results]  The greatest decline in number of bees (58.07%) occurred in the virgin queen group, which was significantly higher than that in either the queenright group (30.83%) or the queen-less group (38.80%) (P < 0.05). The decline in the proportion of capped brood was significantly lower in the queenright group (43.40%), than in either the queen-less group or the virgin queen group (P < 0.01). The decline in egg production in the queenright group (54.2 %) was also significantly lower than that in the queen-less group (100%) (P<0.05), and was also lower, but not significantly so, than that in the virgin queen group (90.99%). The peak period of active attendance among the three groups occurred between 9:00-13:00. There were two peaks in the queenright group but just one in the queen-less group and in the virgin queen group. Groups can be ranked in frequency of attendance as follows; queenright group (38), virgin queen group (31), and queen-less group (24); these differences are statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in the pollen consumption ratio of the three groups (P>0.05). The queenright group pollinated significantly more soybean pods and grains than that either the queen-less group or the virgin queen group (P<0.01). Soybean plants pollinated by either the queenright group or the queen-less group had a significantly higher yield per plant than those pollinated by the virgin queen group (P<0.01). [Conclusion]  Queenright and queen-less honey bee colonies were significantly better pollinators of sterile soybeans than those with virgin queens. The cost of pollinating soybean crops can, however, be reduced by using queen-less colonies or those with a virgin queen.
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