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中华蜜蜂对白三叶的访花行为及授粉效果研究
Flower-visiting behavior and pollination of white clover by Apis cerana cerana
陈志敏,朱欣,常志敏,陈祥盛,周正湘,樊莹,张茂,潘成涛,龙见坤
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.133
作者单位:贵州大学昆虫资源开发利用省级特色重点实验室, 昆虫研究所,贵阳 550025
中文关键词:中华蜜蜂;授粉;访花行为;白三叶;产量相关要素
英文关键词:Chinese bee; pollination; flower visiting behavior; totrifolium repens; yield-related factors
中文摘要:【目的】 为明确我国本土优势蜂种中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Fabricius对白三叶的访花行为和授粉效果。【方法】 2021年5月,利用中华蜜蜂为白三叶授粉,采用随机区组设计,共设置了完全授粉、不授粉、初花期授粉、盛花期授粉及末花期授粉5个处理,观察蜜蜂的访花行为和规律,并分析蜜蜂授粉对白三叶产量相关性状的影响。【结果】 中华蜜蜂在不同时间段授粉,其访花行为均不相同。中华蜜蜂的单花滞留时间和访花转移次数在初花期的10:00-12:00和末花期的13:00-15:00最多,盛花期则与此相反;其花序采粉、蜜次数和访花速率在初花期的16:00-18:00最高,盛花期和末花期的最大值出现在13:00-15:00。中华蜜蜂访花转移次数、花序采粉、蜜次数和访花速率的值均在盛花期最高,而单花滞留时间、花序访问时间在盛花期最短,且在盛花期与末花期存在显著性的差异(P˂0.05)。相关分析结果表明,访花速率与单花停滞时间呈不显著负相关关系(P>0.05),与花序访问时间呈不显著正相关关系(P>0.05)、与花序采粉和蜜次数(P˂0.01)呈极显著正相关关系;白三叶产量相关性状中产花密度、种子数以及荚果数在全花期授粉与盛花期最高,分别为(286.67±8.11)个、(4.65±0.20)粒和(66.7±3.93)个;在不授粉的情况下最低,分别为(273.33±5.81)个、(4.21±0.10)粒和(38.00±2.93)个。【结论】 中华蜜蜂对白三叶盛花期的访花最活跃;完全授粉和盛花期授粉条件下能较好提高白三叶的花密度、花序花朵数、单序荚果数和种子数。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To quantify the flower visiting behavior and pollination of white clover, Trifolium repens, by the dominant native bee species in China (Apis cerana cerana). [Methods]  Visits by A. cerana cerana to white clover flowers were observed and recorded in May 2021 and the relationship between visits and flower density, seed number and pod number was analyzed. [Results]  Flower visiting behavior and pollination differed at different times of the day. The retention time of a single flower and the transfer time between flowers was highest between 10:00 and 12:00 at the beginning of flowering and between 13:00 and 15:00 at the end of flowering, but the reverse was true during the full flowering period. The amount of pollen and honey collected, and flower visiting rates per inflorescence, were highest from 16:00 to 18:00 in the initial flowering stage, and from 13:00 to 15:00 in the full and the final flowering stages. The transfer time between flowers, the amount of time spent collecting pollen and honey and the visiting rate, were highest in the full flowering stage, whereas the retention time of a single flower and visiting time between inflorescences were shortest in the full flowering stage; there were significant differences between the full and the final flowering stages (P<0.05). There was no significant negative correlation between flower visiting rate and single flower stagnation time (P>0.05), nor was there a significant positive correlation with inflorescence visiting time (P>0.05), but there was a very significant positive correlation between inflorescence pollination and honey collection time (P<0.01). Flower density, seed number and pod number were highest during the full flowering stage; (286.67±8.11)ind., (4.65±0.20)grain and (66.70±3.93)ind., respectively, and lowest without pollination; (273.33±5.81)ind., (4.21±0.10)grain and (38.00±2.93)ind., respectively. [Conclusion]  Most visits by A. cerana cerana to white clover flowers occurred during the full flowering stage. The flower density, number of inflorescences per flower, pod number and seed number, were all increased by complete pollination during the full flowering stage.
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