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温度对白刺夜蛾生长发育及成虫寿命和繁殖的影响
Effects of temperature on the growth, development, adult longevity and reproduction of Leiometopon simyrides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
勾文山,马维新,刘宁云,胡桂馨,孙尧德
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.142
作者单位:甘肃农业大学草业学院,国家林业和草原局高寒草地鼠害防控工程技术研究中心,兰州 730070
中文关键词:白刺夜蛾;温度;生长发育;繁殖;发育起点温度;有效积温
英文关键词:Leiometopon simyrides; temperature; growth development; reproduction; developmental threshold temperature; effective accumulated temperature
中文摘要:【目的】 白刺夜蛾Leiometopon simyrides是荒漠植物白刺的重要害虫,明确温度对白刺夜蛾生长发育、成虫寿命和繁殖的影响,以期对白刺夜蛾的发生进行预测预报。【方法】 设置18、21、24、27、30和33 ℃ 6个恒温梯度,观测并记录白刺夜蛾各虫期的发育历期、存活率、成虫寿命、产卵量等生物学参数; 运用有效积温法则计算各虫期的发育起点温度和有效积温;通过线性模型和Logistic模型对温度与各虫期发育速率之间的关系进行拟合。【结果】 在18-30 ℃范围内,白刺夜蛾卵、各龄幼虫和蛹的发育历期均随着温度的升高而缩短;在33 ℃时,卵、3龄幼虫和5龄幼虫的发育历期有所延长;成虫的寿命随温度的升高逐渐缩短。在27 ℃时,除5龄幼虫外,卵和1-4龄幼虫的存活率均最高;21 ℃下蛹的存活率(97.50%)最高,其次为24 ℃和27 ℃的,蛹的存活率分别为95.97%和95.28%。在18 ℃和21 ℃,除去死亡蛹,白刺夜蛾的蛹全部滞育;在24-30 ℃温度范围,部分白刺夜蛾羽化,27 ℃条件下成虫羽化率最高(88.33%),单雌产卵量也最高(235.2粒),其次为24 ℃和30 ℃的,但30 ℃下羽化的成虫不产卵,24 ℃下单雌产卵量为86.3粒。卵期、幼虫期、蛹期和全世代的发育起点温度分别为13.01、10.71、13.45和14.60 ℃,有效积温分别为112.36、272.15、167.28和475.96 日·度。相较于线性模型,Logistic模型能够更好地拟合发育速率与温度之间的关系。【结论】 白刺夜蛾生长发育和繁殖的最适宜温度范围为24-27 ℃。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To explore the influence of temperature on the growth, development, adult longevity and reproduction of Leiometopon simyrides, an important leaf-feeding insect pest of Nitraria spp., and thereby improve the ability to predict the occurrence of this pest. [Methods]  The developmental duration, survival rate of different developmental stages, adult longevity and fecundity of L. simyrides were measured under constant temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 ℃. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of each stage were determined using the effective accumulated temperature law, and the relationship between temperature and the development rate of each stage was modelled using linear and logistic models. [Results]  The developmental duration of eggs, larvae and pupae of L. simyrides decreased with increasing temperature within the range of 18-30 ℃ but exposure to 33 ℃ slightly increased the developmental duration of eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae. The survival rate of eggs and the 1st to 4th instar stages were all highest at 27 ℃, and the survival rate of pupae was highest (97.50%) at 21 ℃ and progressively lower at 24 ℃ and 27 ℃. Live pupae entered diapause at 18 ℃ and 21 ℃. Adults only emerged within the temperature range of 24-30 ℃. The emergence rate was highest (88.33%) at 27 ℃. The average number of eggs laid per female (235.2) was also highest at 27 ℃ and lowest at 24 ℃. Females did not lay eggs at 30 ℃. The threshold temperatures of eggs, larvae, pupae, and the entire generation, were 13.01, 10.71,13.45 and 14.60 ℃, respectively, and the corresponding effective accumulated temperatures were 112.36, 272.15, 167.28 and 475.96 degree-days, respectively. The relationship between developmental rate and temperature was a better fit to a logistic model than a linear model. [Conclusion]  The optimum temperature range for L. simyrides growth, development and reproduction is 24-27 ℃.
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