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角倍性蚜生长特性的研究
Growth characteristics of the sexual generation of Schlechtendalia chinensis
邵淑霞,杨子祥,严高红,陈航,许鑫,魏洪媛
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.148
作者单位:中国林业科学研究院高原林业研究所,国家林业和草原局资源昆虫培育与利用重点实验室,昆明 650224
中文关键词:角倍蚜;性蚜;形态发育;体重;湿度
英文关键词:Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell); sexuale; morphological development; weight; humidity
中文摘要:【目的】 性蚜是角倍蚜Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell)生活史中一个非常重要的世代,对角倍产量具有决定性影响,本研究旨在明确性蚜的部分形态学和生长发育特性,为五倍子人工培育技术的改进和产量的提高提供科学依据。【方法】 采用凹形载玻片单头保育性蚜,并在倒置荧光显微镜下观察记录性蚜的蜕皮情况及体色变化,测量其体长及体宽;用微量电子天平称量其鲜重和干重,并计算其含水量;将初生性蚜置于24 ℃人工气候箱内遮光保育,湿度设置为30%、50%、70%和90%,统计不同日龄性蚜的死亡数量。【结果】 性蚜口器退化;初产当天就开始蜕皮,雌性蚜蜕皮4次,雄性蚜蜕皮3次,两者体长、体宽均呈负增长;出生后的第5至第8天是性蚜的交配期;雌性蚜寿命为25 d左右,雄性蚜寿命较短,最长为15 d;在整个生长发育期,雌性蚜干重有2次增加,分别发生在出生后的第3至第5天和第11至第17天;雄性蚜干重持续降低;雌性蚜和雄性蚜体内含水量均呈增加趋势,且后者高于前者;环境湿度对性蚜的生长发育至关重要,70%的湿度最利于性蚜的生存,湿度过高或过低均不利于性蚜的存活。【结论】 雌性蚜和雄性蚜在无法从外界取食的情况下,可完成蜕皮、交配、繁育后代等正常的生命活动,且体内含水量以及雌性蚜干重均有增加。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  To clarify the morphology and growth characteristics of the sexual generation of Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) and thereby improve artificial gallnut cultivation technology and yield. [Methods]  Sexual S. chinensis were reared on concave microscope slides and molt, changes in body color, body length and width, observed using an inverted fluorescence microscope. A microelectronic balance was used to measure aphids’ fresh and dry weight and thereby calculate their water content. Newborn aphids were placed in dark, artificial climate boxes at 24 ℃, at a humidity of either 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% and the number of deaths per day was recorded and compared. [Results]  The mouthparts of sexual aphids are degenerate. Females and males began to molt on the day of birth, molting 4 and 3 times within their lifetime, respectively. Body length and width both showed negative growth trends. Mating occurred 5-8 days after birth. Females survived for 25 days and males for up to 15 days. Females’ dry weight increased twice during their lifespan; on the 3rd to 5th day and on the 11th to17th day after birth. Males’ dry weight consistently decreased. The water content of females and males both increased, the latter was higher than the former. The correct environmental humidity was crucial for growth and development; 70% humidity was optimal, higher or lower humidity was not conducive to normal growth and development. [Conclusion]  Although the sexual generation S. chinensis cannot eat, they complete normal life activities such as molting, mating and reproduction. Furthermore, their water content and female dry weight increase over their lifetime.
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