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小蜂玻片标本及针插标本制作方法
Relative advantages of slide-mounted vs pinned, chalcid specimens
张辰,祖国浩,李二峰,薛昊
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2022.150
作者单位:天津农学院园艺园林学院,天津 300384
中文关键词:小蜂;玻片制作;阿拉伯胶;中性树胶;针插标本
英文关键词:College of Horticulture and Landscape, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China
中文摘要:【目的】 小蜂类昆虫作为农林害虫的寄生性天敌,被广泛应用于生物防治中,具有重要的经济价值。由于其个体微小,大多只能通过玻片标本的制作来观察其形态特征,而玻片标本的制作过程难度较大,标本制作的质量直接影响小蜂种类的鉴定及后续的研究。本文基于课题组多年的探索积累,总结了小蜂标本的制作方法,以期为小蜂的准确鉴定提供清晰且易于观察的材料。【方法】 采用阿拉伯胶封片法、中性树胶(加拿大树胶)封片法和针插法制作小蜂标本,更新了阿拉伯胶的配置方法,且详细记述了阿拉伯胶封片法、中性树胶(加拿大树胶)封片法和针插标本的制作方法,并优化了制片过程中标本清洗、解剖、透明及压片等步骤。【结果】 通过对比3种方法的优缺点,阿拉伯胶制备简单,可免去复杂的脱水步骤,且后期能随时对玻片进行调整,但长期保存后玻片易干裂;中性树胶(加拿大树胶)制片可永久保存,但脱水过程中标本易皱缩变形,干燥慢并具刺激性气味,且后期极难二次调整;针插标本能直观展现小蜂体色、刻纹、凹槽等特征,但细节特征不易观察,且易被虫蛀。【结论】 根据小蜂的体型大小、标本用途和体壁骨化程度等不同情况选用不同的标本制作方法:(1)体长小于2 mm的小蜂标本须制成玻片标本观察鉴定,阿拉伯胶封片法简单且容错率高,适合练习及普通的制片需要。中性树胶(加拿大树胶)封片法可永久保存,兼具防腐、透明度高等优点,适合保存新种的模式标本;(2)体长大于2 mm的小蜂标本适合制作针插标本,以便观察其体色和刻纹等特征。
英文摘要:[Objectives]  Parasitic chalcid wasps are widely used biological control agents in agriculture and forestry and consequently have significant economic value. Because of their small size, most of their morphological characteristics can only be observed on slide-mounted specimens. Preparing such specimens is, however, relatively difficult, and the quality of preparation directly affects the value of specimens for species identification and research. This article summarizes different methods of preparing chalcid specimens in order to provide clear diagnostic features for identifying the species of this taxon. [Methods]  Chalcid specimens were prepared using an updated Arabic balsam sealing method, neutral balsam (Canada balsam) sealing method and the pinning (needle-insertion) method. All three methods are described in detail, including how to optimize the steps of cleaning, dissection, transparency and tableting, in the production process. [Results]  The preparation of Arabic balsam was relatively simple, complex dehydration steps could be avoided and slides could be adjusted at a later stage. However, slides cracked easily during long-term storage. Neutral balsam (Canada balsam) glass slides were more permanent, but specimens were prone to shrinkage and deformation during the dehydration process. Furthermore, neutral balsam dries slowly, has a pungent odor, and slides are extremely difficult to readjust. Pinned specimens retain accurate body color, grooves and other gross morphological features, but many morphological details are hard to observe. Furthermore, specimens are easily damaged by insects during storage. [Conclusion]  Different preparation methods should be chosen based on the size of specimen, its intended use and the degree of ossification of the integument. (1) Specimens with body length < 2 mm should be made into glass slides for observation and identification. The Arabic balsam method is relatively convenient and has a high error tolerance rate, which makes it suitable for practice and the preparation of ordinary specimens. The neutral (Canada) balsam sealing method allows specimens to be more permanently preserved, prevents corrosion and is highly transparent, and is therefore more suitable for preserving type specimens of new species. (2) Specimens with a body length > 2 mm are suitable for pinning, which allows body color and other gross morphological characteristics to be readily observed.
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