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肥料减施对山东麦田麦蚜和麦螨种群发生 及小麦产量的影响
Effects of reduced fertilizer application on the occurrence of wheat aphids and mites in wheat fields, and wheat yield, in Shandong province
段瑞川,左传宝,任 华,于福兰,李润钊,李立坤,邹 言,陈法军
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.150
作者单位:南京农业大学植物保护学院昆虫系
中文关键词:肥料减施;麦蚜;麦螨;种群发生量;小麦产量
英文关键词:fertilizer reduction; wheat aphids; wheat mites; population occurrence; wheat yield
中文摘要:

【目的】 为探究不同肥料减施水平对麦田3种麦蚜(麦二叉蚜Schizaphis graminum、荻草谷网蚜Sitobion miscanthi和禾谷缢管蚜Rhopalosiphum padi)和2种麦螨(麦叶爪螨Penthaleus major和麦岩螨Petrobia latens)的种群发生以及小麦产量的影响。【方法】 研究了标准肥(600 kg/hm2)、减量施肥10%(540 kg/hm2)、减量施肥20%(480 kg/hm2)、减量施肥37.5%(375 kg/hm2)和减量施肥50%(300 kg/hm2)下麦田主要害虫麦蚜和麦螨种群发生动态,并调查了不同肥料减施水平下小麦产量相关指标(单穗生物量、每米行穗数、每10穗籽粒重、千粒重和每667 m2产量)。【结果】 减量施肥处理不同程度地降低了麦田害虫的发生。其中,麦二叉蚜和荻草谷网蚜种群发生量与肥料减施水平呈显著负相关;不同肥料减施处理对小麦穗籽粒重以及千粒重无显著影响,但减量施肥50%可显著降低小麦单株生物量、每米穗数以及每667 m2产量。回归模型分析显示当肥料减施水平低于23.16%时小麦产量不受影响。【结论】 适度的减量施肥(如<23.16%)不仅可降低麦田主要害虫的发生,且对小麦产量的不利影响较小,为麦田肥料减施提供了依据。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To investigate the effects of different levels of fertilizer reduction on the occurrence of three species of wheat aphids (Schizaphis graminum, Sitobion miscanthi and Rhopalosiphum padi) and two species of wheat mites (Penthaleus major and Petrobia latens), and on wheat yield, in wheat fields in Shandong. [Methods]  The population dynamics of wheat aphids and mites, which are the main crop pests in wheat fields, were studied under standard (600 kg/hm2), 10% reduced (540 kg/hm2), 20% reduced (480 kg/hm2), 37.5% reduced (375 kg/hm2) and 50% reduced (300 kg/hm2), applications of fertilizer. Yield indices (including biomass per ear, ears per meter of wheat row, seed weight per 10 ears, weight of 1 000 seeds and yield per 667 m2) under the above fertilizer levels were also investigated. [Results]  The occurrence of wheat aphids and mites were reduced to different degrees by the different levels of fertilizer application. The occurrence of S. graminum and S. miscanthi were strongly, and negatively, correlated with the level of fertilizer reduction. However, the level of fertilizer application had no significant effect on the seed weight per 10 ears or per 1 000 seeds. Reducing the amount of fertilizer by 50% significantly decreased the biomass per ear, ears per meter of wheat row and yield per 667 m2. However, a regression model indicates that wheat yield is not affected when the amount of fertilizer is reduced by < 23.16%. [Conclusion]  Moderate reduction in the amount of fertilizer applied to wheat fields reduces the abundance of the main wheat pests without greatly affecting wheat yield.

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