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虫菌复合技术分离棉田残膜回收混合物研究
Study on the separation of recycled plastic film residual mixtures from cotton field by the composite technology of insect combined with the decomposing fungus
徐业山,张广杰,王 谊,孟 卓,谭 冰,刘 升,马德英,刘玉升
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DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.151
作者单位: 新疆农业大学农学院
中文关键词:白星花金龟;腐解菌;棉田残膜;生物分离
英文关键词:Proteatia brevitarsis; decomposing fungus; residual membrane in cotton field; biological separation
中文摘要:

【目的】 农田残膜是白色污染主要来源,在残膜回收和利用中,农田残膜约占残膜回收物的10.00%-20.00%,如何将残膜从残茬及纤维混合物中分离出来一直是残膜回收加工再利用的主要问题。利用昆虫转化农牧业废弃物技术的发展为破解这个难题提供了思路。【方法】 在室外自然温光条件下,开展辅加5“物料+腐解菌(尿素+腐解菌、猪粪+腐解菌、腐解菌、牛粪+腐解菌、黄粉虫虫沙+腐解菌)”和空白对照(CK)发酵30 d对棉田残膜混合物的预分离和将白星花金龟3龄幼虫投入发酵物料后对棉田残膜回收混合物的终分离研究,通过测定残膜在混合物的占比、幼虫转化力、表层残膜占总比等指标衡量分离效果。【结果】 3种有机辅料(猪粪、牛粪、黄粉虫虫沙)+腐解菌处理最高发酵温度均已超过55 ℃,发酵较为激烈,腐解效果较好;白星花金龟3龄幼虫在6种发酵物料中能够正常生长和结茧化蛹,并能够得到增重量当量57.60倍到193.10倍的虫砂,有机辅料+腐解菌的3个处理表现最佳;白星花金龟3龄幼虫取食和以背行走的特殊方式,使各处理表层残膜占总比均在42.58%±0.94%以上,最佳为牛粪+腐解菌处理,高达54.11%±7.60%;酵化过程均有助于残膜混合物的腐解和提升残膜在混合物中的占比,白星花金龟幼虫转化和分离环节可较大幅度地提升残膜在残渣中的占比,虫菌复合下,有机辅料+腐解菌的3个处理提升残膜占比倍数在4.80倍以上;经估算,每吨棉田回收残膜混合物所能创造的利润约300元。  【结论】 虫菌复合技术不仅可实现残膜回收混合物中残膜的增值分离,还能助力牛粪等粪便和具有有机肥应用潜力的虫砂的资源化利用,为新疆棉区残膜污染治理提供了新的探索方向。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  Residual film in farmland is the main source of white pollution. In the recycling and utilization of residual film, Farmland residual film accounts for about 10.00%-20.00% of the residual film recovery, how to separate the residual film from the residue and fiber mixture has always been a "stuck neck" problem that plagues the recycling and reuse of residual film. The development of technology that uses insects to transform agricultural and animal husbandry wastes provides ideas for solving this problem. [Methods]  There are 6 treatments were set up, which are urea + fungus, CK, pig manure + fungus, fungus, cow manure + fungus, insect dung-sand + fungus, and carried out a 30-day decomposing pretreatment under outdoor natural temperature and light conditions. Thereafter, the 3rd instar larva of Proteatia brevitarsis Lewis were put into the fermentation material to separating the recycled plastic film residual mixtures. The separation effect was measured by measuring the proportion of residual membrane in the mixture, the transformation capability of larvae and the residual membrane on the surface accounted for the total. [Results]  The highest fermentation temperature of three organic accessories (pig manure, cow manure, insect dung-sand)+ fungus treatments has exceeded 55 ℃, the fermentation is more intense, and the decomposing effect is better; the 3rd instar larva of P. brevitarsis Lewis can grow and cocoon normally in the six decomposed material, And can get insect dung-sand equivalent to 57.60 times to 193.10 times increase in weight, the three treatments of organic accessories + fungus performed the best; Special way of the feeding and back-walking activities of the 3rd instar larvae of P. brevitarsis, The residual membrane on the surface of each treatment accounted for more than 42.58% ±0.94% of the total, The best is cow dung + fungus treatment, up to 54.11%±7.60%; the fermentation process all contributes to the decomposition and improvement of the proportion of residual membrane in total residue mixture, the transformation and separation of the larvae of P. brevitarsis can greatly increase the proportion of residual membrane in the residue. Under the compound of insects and fungus, the three treatments of organic accessories + fungus can increase the ratio of residual membrane to more than 4.8 times. According to a rough estimate, the profit that can be created by recycling the residual membrane mixture per ton of cotton field is about 300 yuan. [Conclusion]  The insect and fungus compound technology can not only realize the value-added separation of the residual membrane in the residual membrane recovery mixture. It also can improve the resource utilization of manure (i.e, cow manure) and the insect dung-sand which has the application potential in organic fertilizer, and providing a new exploration direction for cracking the residual membrane pollution control in the Xinjiang cotton area, and it has initial application potential.

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