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天山东部草甸草原访花昆虫种类 及访花行为研究
Species and pollination behavior of flower-visiting insects in the meadow steppe of the eastern Tianshan Mountains
孙凯瑞,牙森·沙力,迪丽胡玛尔·安尼瓦尔,买买提·胡加,阿迪力·衣米提
点击:213次 下载:12次
DOI:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2023.153
作者单位:新疆农业大学农学院
中文关键词:草甸草原;访花昆虫;开花植物;访花行为
英文关键词:meadow grassland; flower visiting insects; flowering plant; flower-visiting behavior
中文摘要:

【目的】 访花昆虫是草甸草原内生物多样性的重要组成部分,为草原多种植物提供授粉服务。掌握天山东部草甸草原访花昆虫种类及主要访花昆虫访花行为规律,为利用和保护草原访花昆虫资源奠定基础。【方法】 本研究于20216-8月内,采用扫网、网捕、目测和摄像等方式对当地访花昆虫与开花植物种类关系,主要访花昆虫日活动规律、访花行为和访花频率进行了调查和采集。【结果】 天山东部草甸草原主要访花昆虫有51733种,双翅目、膜翅目和鳞翅目为当地主要访花昆虫,所访开花植物涉及8915种,其中西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera为朝天委陵菜Potentilla supina的主要传粉者,凹带食蚜蝇Syrphus nitens为蛇床Cnidium monnieri主要传粉者,斑缘豆粉蝶Colias erate为蓟Cirsium japonicum主要访花者。3种访花昆虫日活动高峰期均在12:00-14:00,且多个时间段内斑缘豆粉蝶与前两者存在显著性差异。在日活动高峰期中,西方蜜蜂访朝天委陵菜的访花频率平均值为(9.43±2.27)朵,访花朵数为7时,访花频率最大,单花停留时间平均为(6.71±1.45s;凹带食蚜蝇访蛇床的访花频率平均值为(5.30±1.23)朵,访花朵数为4时,访花频率最大,单花停留时间平均为(13.79±3.40s;斑缘豆粉蝶访蛇床的访花频率平均值为(1.58±0.13)朵,访花朵数为1时,访花频率最大,单花停留时间平均为(10.42±2.90s【结论】 综合以上调查结果,认为天山东部访花昆虫及所访开花植物种类会随时间推移发生变化,可根据增加对应植物资源来提高草原内访花昆虫资源。合理利用不同访花昆虫的行为特点,达到为特定植物资源进行授粉服务目的。

英文摘要:

[Objectives]  To identify the species of flower-visiting insects in the meadow steppe of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, and investigate their flower visiting behavior, in order to better protect these species and the essential pollination services they provide to various plant resources in this grassland region. [Methods] The relationship between local flower-visiting insects and flowering plant species was investigated from June to August 2021 using sweep nets, visual inspection and videography. [Results]  Thirty-three species from 17 families and 5 orders of flower visiting insects were identified, of which the main orders were the Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Flowering plants visited by these insects included 15 species in 8 orders, and 9 families. Apis mellifera was the main pollinator of Potentilla supina, whereas Syrphus nitens was the main pollinator of Cnidium monnieri and Colias erate was the main pollinator of Cirsium japonicum. The peak of daily activity of these three flower-visiting insects is between 12:00 and 14:00. During this period, the average frequency of Apis mellifera visits to P. supina was (9.43 ± 2.27), with most visits recorded when 7 flowers were visited. The average visit duration to a single flower was (6.71 ± 1.45) s. The average frequency of S. nitens visits to C. monnieri flowers was (5.30 ± 1.23), the highest frequency was recorded when 4 flowers were visited. The average duration of a visit to a single flower was (13.79 ± 3.40) s; The average frequency of visits of C. erate to Cirsium japonicum was (1.58 ± 0.13), the highest frequency of visits was recorded when just 1 flower was visited. The average duration of a visit to a single flower was (10.42 ± 2.90) s. [Conclusion]  Flower-visiting insects and types of flowering plants in the eastern Tianshan Mountains will change over time. The abundance of pollinating insects in this grassland region can be improved by increasing the corresponding host plant resources. Reasonable use of the behavioral characteristics of different flower-visiting insects can be made to pollinate specific plant resources.

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