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滞育昆虫小分子含量变化研究进展
A literature review on changes of small molecules of diapause insects during overwintering period
丁惠梅1,2**,马罡1,武三安2,赵飞1,马春森1***
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DOI:
作者单位:1 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所北京100081; 2 北京林业大学北京100083
中文关键词:糖类, 醇类, 脂肪, 蛋白, 温度, 滞育深度
英文关键词:sugar, polyol, fat, protein, temperature, diapause intensity
中文摘要:

      越冬期间昆虫的滞育深度和虫体健康状态从表面难以判断,但通过虫体生化物质的测定,可以有效解决这一难题,为预测预报提供可靠信息。本文从越冬期生化物质的变化规律和主要影响影子两部分综述了国内外越冬期滞育昆虫的生化研究进展。国内外研究表明,糖原是主要的能量物质,可以转化为海藻糖、葡萄糖/果糖、甘油、山梨醇/甘露醇、肌醇、脂肪酸、氨基酸等小分子防冻剂,这些物质有稳定细胞膜结构和保护蛋白功能的作用。其变化表现出先减少后增加、先增加后减少、持续减少和持续增加4种类型。脂肪的作用与糖原类似。温度和滞育深度是影响生化物质合成、转化的主要因子,滞育深度是昆虫感知温度的先决条件,温度是物质合成的必须条件。这些研究可为翌年昆虫发生的预测预报提供一种新的思路。

  

英文摘要:

          It is difficult to determine the diapause intensity and health status of diapausing insects while these are overwintering. However, this can be achieved by measuring certain biochemicals in insects’ bodies thereby providing useful information for population forecasting. By reviewing the literature on the biomolecules of diapause insects, we here summarize: 1) methods for correlated studies; 2) changing patterns of certain biochemicals including sugar, polyol, fat and protein; 3) the factors, including temperature, diapause intensity and their interactions, that influence the content of these biochemicals. During the overwintering period, glycogen, which serves as primary energy storage, can be transferred into a series of small antifreeze molecules, including trehalose, glucose/fructose, plycerol, sorbitol/mannitol, inositol, fatty acids and amino acids. These biomolecules can protect diapausing insects by stabling membrane structures and maintaining protein function. Glycogen showed the following four trends during diapause: 1) first decrease and then increase; 2) first increase and then decrease; 3) continuous increase and continuous decrease. The function of fat is similar to glycogen. Because temperature is necessary for internal biomolecule synthesis and transformation it is essential that insects that go through a relatively deep intensity diapause are able to detect external temperature fluctuations. These results provide a novel approach to predicting insect population trends.

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