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Issue:ISSN 2095-1353
           CN 11-6020/Q
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Your Position :Home->Past Journals Catalog->2021年58 No.4

Independent and concerted evolution of the trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes in Anoplura
Author of the article:ZHANG Yan-Fang DONG Wen-Ge CHEN Ting
Author's Workplace:Institute of Pathogens and Vectors, Dali University, Dali 671000, China; Institute of Pathogens and Vectors, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
Key Words:Anoplura; trnL1(tag); trnL2(taa); fragmented mitochondrial genome; concerted evolution; independent evolution
Abstract:
Anoplura (lice) are obligate ectoparasites of eutherians. The mitochondrial genome of Anoplura has undergone drastic fragmentation and formed multiple mitochondrial minicircular chromosomes that differ from the typical single mitochondrial genome. Sequences of trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes from 17 species of sucking lice and an outgroup (the screamer louse, Bothriometopus macrocnemis) were compared to investigate the independent, and concerted, evolution of these genes. [Methods]  The trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes of 4 species of sucking lice from 3 genera and 3 families collected in Yunnan (Polyplax reclinata, Polyplax serrata, Hoplopleura pacifica, Ancistroplax crocidurae) were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq PE250 platform, and compared with those of 13 other species and the screamer louse outgroup obtained from GenBank. Evolutionary relationships among species were inferred using the maximum parsimony method (MP) and the homology of trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) gene sequences was analyzed. [Results]  The trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes of all 17 species of sucking lice formed a typical clover structure. TrnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes have very long identical sequences in Pediculus, Pthirus and Pedicinus, very short identical sequences in Hoplopleura and Ancistroplax, and intermediate length sequences in Polyplax, Microthoracius and Haematopinus. The length of identical trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) gene sequences in common, typical, single circular, mitochondrial genome species is 6-10 bp. Sequences in different genera sucking lice were significantly different, whereas those in the same genus were only slightly different. A phylogenetic tree indicates that there has been both concerted, and independent, evolution of the trnL1(tag), trnL2(taa), trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) genes. [Conclusion]  Sucking lice with longer identical trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) gene sequences are more likely to have undergone concerted evolution, whereas those with shorter identical sequences are more likely to have undergone independent evolution. Concerted evolution would be expected over the long term, or between distantly related species, whereas independent evolution would be expected over the short term (between two recombination events), or between closely related species. The fragmented pattern of the Anoplura mitochondrial genome may influence the length of identical trnL1(tag) and trnL2(taa) gene sequences.
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